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      Inflammation as a central mechanism in Alzheimer's disease

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          Abstract

          Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by cognitive decline and the presence of two core pathologies, amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Over the last decade, the presence of a sustained immune response in the brain has emerged as a third core pathology in AD. The sustained activation of the brain's resident macrophages (microglia) and other immune cells has been demonstrated to exacerbate both amyloid and tau pathology and may serve as a link in the pathogenesis of the disorder. In the following review, we provide an overview of inflammation in AD and a detailed coverage of a number of microglia-related signaling mechanisms that have been implicated in AD. Additional information on microglia signaling and a number of cytokines in AD are also reviewed. We also review the potential connection of risk factors for AD and how they may be related to inflammatory mechanisms.

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          Most cited references185

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          Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families.

          The apolipoprotein E type 4 allele (APOE-epsilon 4) is genetically associated with the common late onset familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Risk for AD increased from 20% to 90% and mean age at onset decreased from 84 to 68 years with increasing number of APOE-epsilon 4 alleles in 42 families with late onset AD. Thus APOE-epsilon 4 gene dose is a major risk factor for late onset AD and, in these families, homozygosity for APOE-epsilon 4 was virtually sufficient to cause AD by age 80.
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            Inflammation and Alzheimer's disease.

            Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical stimulants of inflammation. Likewise, in the AD brain damaged neurons and neurites and highly insoluble amyloid beta peptide deposits and neurofibrillary tangles provide obvious stimuli for inflammation. Because these stimuli are discrete, microlocalized, and present from early preclinical to terminal stages of AD, local upregulation of complement, cytokines, acute phase reactants, and other inflammatory mediators is also discrete, microlocalized, and chronic. Cumulated over many years, direct and bystander damage from AD inflammatory mechanisms is likely to significantly exacerbate the very pathogenic processes that gave rise to it. Thus, animal models and clinical studies, although still in their infancy, strongly suggest that AD inflammation significantly contributes to AD pathogenesis. By better understanding AD inflammatory and immunoregulatory processes, it should be possible to develop anti-inflammatory approaches that may not cure AD but will likely help slow the progression or delay the onset of this devastating disorder.
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              The Microglial Sensome Revealed by Direct RNA Sequencing

              Microglia, the principal neuroimmune sentinels of the brain, continuously sense changes in their environment and respond to invading pathogens, toxins and cellular debris. Microglia exhibit plasticity and can assume neurotoxic or neuroprotective priming states that determine their responses to danger. We used direct RNA sequencing, without amplification or cDNA synthesis, to determine the quantitative transcriptomes of microglia of healthy adult and aged mice. We validated our findings by fluorescent dual in-situ hybridization, unbiased proteomic analysis and quantitative PCR. We report here that microglia have a distinct transcriptomic signature and express a unique cluster of transcripts encoding proteins for sensing endogenous ligands and microbes that we term the “sensome”. With aging, sensome transcripts for endogenous ligand recognition are downregulated, whereas those involved in microbe recognition and host defense are upregulated. In addition, aging is associated with an overall increase in expression of microglial genes involved in neuroprotection.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Alzheimers Dement (N Y)
                Alzheimers Dement (N Y)
                Alzheimer's & Dementia : Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
                Elsevier
                2352-8737
                06 September 2018
                2018
                06 September 2018
                : 4
                : 575-590
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA
                [b ]Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Tel.: +702-895-4766; Fax: +702-895-0195. jefferson.kinney@ 123456unlv.edu
                Article
                S2352-8737(18)30049-0
                10.1016/j.trci.2018.06.014
                6214864
                e5dc1e8f-8467-4e1a-8c4e-cd543ffac91c
                © 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Special Issue from the Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) and Center for Neurodegeneration and Translational Neuroscience (CNTN)

                alzheimer's disease,inflammation,microglia,cytokines,microglia receptors

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