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      Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activity of Aerial Parts and Roots of Turkish Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza GlabraL.)

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      International Journal of Food Properties

      Informa UK Limited

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          Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea.

          An antioxidant fraction of Chinese green tea (green tea antioxidant; GTA), containing several catechins, has been previously shown to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor promotion in mouse skin. In the present study, GTA was shown to have antioxidative activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the superoxide radical (O2-). GTA also prevented oxygen radical and H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication in cultured B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes and human keratinocytes (NHEK cells). GTA (0.05-50 micrograms/ml) prevented the killing of hepatocytes (measured by lactate dehydrogenase release) by paraquat (1-10 mM) and glucose oxidase (0.8-40 micrograms/ml) in a concentration-dependent fashion. GTA (50 micrograms/ml) also prevented the inhibition of hepatocyte intercellular communication by paraquat (5 mM), glucose oxidase (0.8 micrograms/ml), and phenobarbital (500 micrograms/ml). In addition, GTA (50 micrograms/ml) prevented the inhibition of intercellular communication in human keratinocytes by TPA (100 ng/ml). Cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication, two possible mechanisms by which tumor promoters may produce their promoting effects were therefore prevented by GTA. The inhibition of these two effects of pro-oxidant compounds may suggest a mechanism by which GTA inhibits tumor promotion in vivo.
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            The Haber-Weiss reaction and mechanisms of toxicity.

             James Kehrer (2000)
            The concept that the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (HO) could be generated from an interaction between superoxide (O(2)(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was proposed (with Joseph Weiss) in Professor Haber's final paper published in 1934. Until it was recognized that free radicals are produced in biological systems, this finding seemed to have no relevance to biology. However, following the discovery that O(2)(-) was a normal cellular metabolite, it was quickly recognized that the Haber-Weiss reaction (O(2)(-)+H(2)O(2) -->HO+O(2)+HO(-)) might provide a means to generate more toxic radicals. Although the basic reaction has a second order rate constant of zero in aqueous solution and thus cannot occur in biological systems, the ability of iron salts to serve as catalysts was discussed by these authors. Because transition metal ions, particularly iron, are present at low levels in biological systems, this pathway (commonly referred to as the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction) has been widely postulated to account for the in vivo generation of the highly reactive HO. Recent data documenting the importance of redox regulation of various cellular signaling pathways makes it clear that free radicals are essential for normal cellular function. However, this also makes it obvious that disruptions of free radical production or defenses at many different levels can lead to adverse effects on cells. While the generation of HO, which is by far the most reactive oxygen species, is generally indicative of an overtly toxic event, it is through studies at this level that we have reached a better understanding of free radicals as both signaling molecules and toxic species.
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              Natural antioxidants from residual sources

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Food Properties
                International Journal of Food Properties
                Informa UK Limited
                1094-2912
                1532-2386
                June 30 2010
                June 30 2010
                : 13
                : 4
                : 657-671
                Article
                10.1080/10942911003773916
                © 2010

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