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      Cholesterol Reduction Rapidly Improves Endothelial Function After Acute Coronary Syndromes : The RECIFE (Reduction of Cholesterol in Ischemia and Function of the Endothelium) Trial

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1

      Circulation

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Most cited references 26

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          Close relation of endothelial function in the human coronary and peripheral circulations.

           M Gerhard,  S Knab,  P Ganz (1995)
          The relation between endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in the brachial and coronary arteries was determined in the same subjects. Coronary artery endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of overt atherosclerosis and is important in its pathogenesis. A noninvasive assessment of endothelial function in a peripheral conduit vessel, the brachial artery, was recently described, but the relation between brachial artery function and coronary artery vasodilator function has not been explored. In 50 patients referred to the catheterization laboratory for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (mean age +/- SD 56 +/- 10 years), the coronary vasomotor response to serial intracoronary infusions of the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/liter), was studied. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was also assessed in the brachial artery by measuring the change in brachial artery diameter in response to reactive hyperemia. Patients with coronary artery endothelial dysfunction manifested as vasoconstriction in response to acetylcholine had significantly impaired flow-mediated vasodilation in the brachial artery compared with that of patients with normal coronary endothelial function (4.8 +/- 5.5% vs. 10.8 +/- 7.6%, p < 0.01). Patients with coronary artery disease also had an attenuated brachial artery vasodilator response compared with that of patients with angiographically smooth coronary arteries (4.5 +/- 4.6% vs. 9.7 +/- 8.1%, p < 0.02). By multivariate analysis, the strongest predictors of reduced brachial dilator responses to flow were baseline brachial artery diameter (p < 0.001), coronary endothelial dysfunction (p = 0.003), the presence of coronary artery disease (p = 0.007) and cigarette smoking (p = 0.016). The brachial artery vasodilator response to sublingual nitroglycerin was independent of coronary endothelial responses or the presence of coronary artery disease. The positive predictive value of abnormal brachial dilation ( < 3%) in predicting coronary endothelial dysfunction is 95%. This study demonstrated a close relation between coronary artery endothelium-dependent vasomotor responses to acetylcholine and flow-mediated vasodilation in the brachial artery. This noninvasive method may become a useful surrogate in assessing the predisposition to atherosclerosis in patients with cardiac risk factors.
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            Regression of coronary artery disease as a result of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in men with high levels of apolipoprotein B.

            The effect of intensive lipid-lowering therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among men at high risk for cardiovascular events was assessed by quantitative arteriography. Of 146 men no more than 62 years of age who had apolipoprotein B levels greater than or equal to 125 mg per deciliter, documented coronary artery disease, and a family history of vascular disease, 120 completed the 2 1/2-year double-blind study, which included arteriography at base line and after treatment. Patients were given dietary counseling and were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: lovastatin (20 mg twice a day) and colestipol (10 g three times a day); niacin (1 g four times a day) and colestipol (10 g three times a day); or conventional therapy with placebo (or colestipol if the low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol level was elevated). The levels of LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol changed only slightly in the conventional-therapy group (mean changes, -7 and +5 percent, respectively), but more substantially among patients treated with lovastatin and colestipol (-46 and +15 percent) or niacin and colestipol (-32 and +43 percent). In the conventional-therapy group, 46 percent of the patients had definite lesion progression (and no regression) in at least one of nine proximal coronary segments; regression was the only change in 11 percent. By comparison, progression (as the only change) was less frequent among patients who received lovastatin and colestipol (21 percent) and those who received niacin and colestipol (25 percent), and regression was more frequent (lovastatin and colestipol, 32 percent; niacin and colestipol, 39 percent; P less than 0.005). Multivariate analysis indicated that a reduction in the level of apolipoprotein B (or LDL cholesterol) and in systolic blood pressure, and an increase in HDL cholesterol correlated independently with regression of coronary lesions. Clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization for worsening symptoms) occurred in 10 of 52 patients assigned to conventional therapy, as compared with 3 of 46 assigned to receive lovastatin and colestipol and 2 of 48 assigned to receive niacin and colestipol (relative risk of an event during intensive treatment, 0.27; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.77). In men with coronary artery disease who were at high risk for cardiovascular events, intensive lipid-lowering therapy reduced the frequency of progression of coronary lesions, increased the frequency of regression, and reduced the incidence of cardiovascular events.
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              Pravastatin has cholesterol-lowering independent effects on the artery wall of atherosclerotic monkeys.

              This study examined the direct effects of pravastatin on the artery wall of atherosclerotic monkeys after dietary lipid lowering. Clinical trials suggest that hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease out of proportion to their effect on angiographically assessed lumen stenosis. Thirty-two cynomolgus monkeys were fed an atherogenic diet for 2 years (progression phase) and then fed a lipid-lowering diet either containing (n = 14) or not containing (n = 18) pravastatin in the diet for an additional 2 years (treatment phase). As designed, total plasma cholesterol and high density lipoprotein concentrations did not differ between groups at the beginning of or during the treatment phase of the experiment (p > 0.05). Quantitative angiography revealed that coronary arteries of the pravastatin-treated monkeys dilated 10 +/- 3%, whereas those from untreated control monkeys constricted -2 +/- 2% in response to acetylcholine (p 0.05) or on the amount of reduction in plaque size in common iliac arteries during the treatment phase of the study (48 +/- 5% [untreated] vs. 45 +/- 6% [pravastatin]; p > 0.05). However, histochemical analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions indicated that the arteries from pravastatin-treated monkeys had significantly fewer macrophages in the intima and media, less calcification and less neovascularization in the intima (p < 0.05). We conclude that compared with control monkeys, the arteries of pravastatin-treated monkeys had better dilator function and plaque characteristics more consistent with plaque stability than those of monkeys not receiving pravastatin. These beneficial arterial effects of pravastatin occurred independently of plasma lipoprotein concentrations and despite similar changes in plaque size between the groups.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                June 29 1999
                June 29 1999
                : 99
                : 25
                : 3227-3233
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Medicine and Research Centre, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.99.25.3227
                © 1999

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