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      Growth Abnormalities Associated with Adrenal Disorders and Their Management

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          Abstract

          Linear growth can be disturbed in paediatric adrenal disease associated with endocrine hypo- or hyperfunction. Tall stature is a feature in some patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndromes and short stature is recognized in the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital anomalies) association. In autoimmune Addison’s disease, growth is usually normal. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, height may be compromised by advanced skeletal maturation or by suppressed growth, particularly in the neonatal period due to excess glucocorticoid treatment. In virilizing adrenal tumours, height is increased at diagnosis, but after surgical cure final height is usually in the normal range. In Cushing’s disease, height was abnormally short in 50% of patients at presentation. After successful treatment, spontaneous catch-up growth was not seen. This led to a diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in 80% of patients. With GH replacement, catch-up growth and long-term benefit occurred. Disturbance of linear growth is an important feature of many patients with adrenal disorders in childhood. Assessment of its pathogenesis and careful management are necessary to ensure optimal final adult height.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Suppressed spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone secretion in patients with Cushing's disease before and after surgical cure

           M A Magiakou (1994)
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            The syndromes of Sotos and Weaver: reports and review.

            The syndromes of Sotos and Weaver are paradigmatic of the daily nosologic difficulties faced by clinical geneticists attempting to diagnose and counsel, and to give accurate prognoses in cases of extensive phenotypic overlap between molecularly undefined entities. Vertebrate development is constrained into only very few final or common developmental paths; therefore, no developmental anomaly seen in humans is unique to ("pathognomonic" of) one syndrome. Thus, it is not surprising that prenatal overgrowth occurs in several syndromes, including the Sotos and Weaver syndromes. Are they sufficiently different in other respects to allow the postulation of locus (rather than allele) heterogeneity? Phenotypic data in both conditions are biased because of ascertainment of propositi, and the apparent differences between them may be entirely artificial as they were between the G and BBB syndromes. On the other hand, the Sotos syndrome may be a cancer syndrome, the Weaver syndrome not (though a neuroblastoma was reported in the latter); in the former there is also remarkably advanced dental maturation rarely commented on in the latter. In Weaver syndrome there are more conspicuous contractures and a facial appearance that experts find convincingly different from that of Sotos individuals. Nevertheless, the hypothesis of locus heterogeneity is testable; at the moment we are inclined to favor the hypothesis of allele heterogeneity. An international effort is required to map, isolate, and sequence the causal gene or genes.
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              Final stature in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome

               M A Magiakou (1994)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7369-6
                978-3-318-00810-4
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2001
                January 2002
                17 November 2004
                : 56
                : Suppl 1
                : 19-23
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Endocrinology, St Bartholomew’s and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London,UK, and bDepartment of Paediatric Endocrinology, Hôpital Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Paris, France
                Article
                48129 Horm Res 2001;56(suppl 1):19–23
                10.1159/000048129
                11786680
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 18, Pages: 5
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