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      Nonregenerative Anemia : Mechanisms of Decreased or Ineffective Erythropoiesis

      1 , 2

      Veterinary Pathology

      SAGE Publications

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          Abstract

          In veterinary medicine, anemia without an appropriate compensatory hematopoietic response is termed nonregenerative. Nonregenerative anemia is a common clinical entity, occurring as a result of diminished or ineffective erythropoiesis in association with many types of pathology. This article reviews nonregenerative anemia in domestic animals, emphasizing mechanisms of disease, and also covers other conditions associated with nonregenerative anemia in people. Many aspects of nonregenerative anemia in animals are worthy of further investigation, from molecular mechanisms of disease to epidemiologic impacts.

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          Most cited references 128

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          Hepcidin regulates cellular iron efflux by binding to ferroportin and inducing its internalization.

          Hepcidin is a peptide hormone secreted by the liver in response to iron loading and inflammation. Decreased hepcidin leads to tissue iron overload, whereas hepcidin overproduction leads to hypoferremia and the anemia of inflammation. Ferroportin is an iron exporter present on the surface of absorptive enterocytes, macrophages, hepatocytes, and placental cells. Here we report that hepcidin bound to ferroportin in tissue culture cells. After binding, ferroportin was internalized and degraded, leading to decreased export of cellular iron. The posttranslational regulation of ferroportin by hepcidin may thus complete a homeostatic loop: Iron regulates the secretion of hepcidin, which in turn controls the concentration of ferroportin on the cell surface.
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            Anemia of chronic disease.

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              Cardiorenal syndrome.

              The term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) increasingly has been used without a consistent or well-accepted definition. To include the vast array of interrelated derangements, and to stress the bidirectional nature of heart-kidney interactions, we present a new classification of the CRS with 5 subtypes that reflect the pathophysiology, the time-frame, and the nature of concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction. CRS can be generally defined as a pathophysiologic disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction of 1 organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. Type 1 CRS reflects an abrupt worsening of cardiac function (e.g., acute cardiogenic shock or decompensated congestive heart failure) leading to acute kidney injury. Type 2 CRS comprises chronic abnormalities in cardiac function (e.g., chronic congestive heart failure) causing progressive chronic kidney disease. Type 3 CRS consists of an abrupt worsening of renal function (e.g., acute kidney ischemia or glomerulonephritis) causing acute cardiac dysfunction (e.g., heart failure, arrhythmia, ischemia). Type 4 CRS describes a state of chronic kidney disease (e.g., chronic glomerular disease) contributing to decreased cardiac function, cardiac hypertrophy, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Type 5 CRS reflects a systemic condition (e.g., sepsis) causing both cardiac and renal dysfunction. Biomarkers can contribute to an early diagnosis of CRS and to a timely therapeutic intervention. The use of this classification can help physicians characterize groups of patients, provides the rationale for specific management strategies, and allows the design of future clinical trials with more accurate selection and stratification of the population under investigation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Veterinary Pathology
                Vet Pathol
                SAGE Publications
                0300-9858
                1544-2217
                July 24 2014
                March 2015
                May 07 2014
                March 2015
                : 52
                : 2
                : 298-311
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Département de Pathologie et Microbiologie, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
                Article
                10.1177/0300985814529315
                24807888
                © 2015

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

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