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      Bread Affects Clinical Parameters and Induces Gut Microbiome-Associated Personal Glycemic Responses

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          Abstract

          Bread is consumed daily by billions of people, yet evidence regarding its clinical effects is contradicting. Here, we performed a randomized crossover trial of two 1-week-long dietary interventions comprising consumption of either traditionally made sourdough-leavened whole-grain bread or industrially made white bread. We found no significant differential effects of bread type on multiple clinical parameters. The gut microbiota composition remained person specific throughout this trial and was generally resilient to the intervention. We demonstrate statistically significant interpersonal variability in the glycemic response to different bread types, suggesting that the lack of phenotypic difference between the bread types stems from a person-specific effect. We further show that the type of bread that induces the lower glycemic response in each person can be predicted based solely on microbiome data prior to the intervention. Together, we present marked personalization in both bread metabolism and the gut microbiome, suggesting that understanding dietary effects requires integration of person-specific factors.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Cell Metabolism
          Cell Metabolism
          Elsevier BV
          15504131
          June 2017
          June 2017
          : 25
          : 6
          : 1243-1253.e5
          Article
          10.1016/j.cmet.2017.05.002
          28591632
          © 2017

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