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      Tapentadol extended release in the management of peripheral diabetic neuropathic pain

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          Abstract

          Tapentadol, a μ-opioid agonist and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, has been found to be an effective medication for a wide variety of chronic pain conditions, including back pain, cancer-related pain, and arthritic pain. It has also been found to have fewer gastrointestinal side effects than more traditional opioid-based therapies. More recently, tapentadol extended release has been demonstrated to be effective in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy, an often debilitating condition affecting approximately one-third of all patients with diabetes. This review highlights the most up-to-date basic and clinical studies by focusing on the mechanisms of action of tapentadol and its clinical efficacy, especially with regard to painful diabetic neuropathy.

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          Opioids in chronic non-cancer pain: systematic review of efficacy and safety.

          Opioids are used increasingly for chronic non-cancer pain. Controversy exists about their effectiveness and safety with long-term use. We analysed available randomised, placebo-controlled trials of WHO step 3 opioids for efficacy and safety in chronic non-cancer pain. The Oxford Pain Relief Database (1950-1994) and Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched until September 2003. Inclusion criteria were randomised comparisons of WHO step 3 opioids with placebo in chronic non-cancer pain. Double-blind studies reporting on pain intensity outcomes using validated pain scales were included. Fifteen randomised placebo-controlled trials were included. Four investigations with 120 patients studied intravenous opioid testing. Eleven studies (1025 patients) compared oral opioids with placebo for four days to eight weeks. Six of the 15 included trials had an open label follow-up of 6-24 months. The mean decrease in pain intensity in most studies was at least 30% with opioids and was comparable in neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain. About 80% of patients experienced at least one adverse event, with constipation (41%), nausea (32%) and somnolence (29%) being most common. Only 44% of 388 patients on open label treatments were still on opioids after therapy for between 7 and 24 months. The short-term efficacy of opioids was good in both neuropathic and musculoskeletal pain conditions. However, only a minority of patients in these studies went on to long-term management with opioids. The small number of selected patients and the short follow-ups do not allow conclusions concerning problems such as tolerance and addiction.
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            Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: an evidence based proposal.

            New studies of the treatment of neuropathic pain have increased the need for an updated review of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to support an evidence based algorithm to treat neuropathic pain conditions. Available studies were identified using a MEDLINE and EMBASE search. One hundred and five studies were included. Numbers needed to treat (NNT) and numbers needed to harm (NNH) were used to compare efficacy and safety of the treatments in different neuropathic pain syndromes. The quality of each trial was assessed. Tricyclic antidepressants and the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin were the most frequently studied drug classes. In peripheral neuropathic pain, the lowest NNT was for tricyclic antidepressants, followed by opioids and the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin. For central neuropathic pain there is limited data. NNT and NNH are currently the best way to assess relative efficacy and safety, but the need for dichotomous data, which may have to be estimated retrospectively for old trials, and the methodological complexity of pooling data from small cross-over and large parallel group trials, remain as limitations.
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              Incidence, prevalence, and management of opioid bowel dysfunction.

               M. Pappagallo (2001)
              Opioid bowel dysfunction (OBD) is a common adverse effect associated with opioid therapy. OBD is commonly described as constipation; however, it is a constellation of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) effects, which also includes abdominal cramping, bloating, and gastroesophageal reflux. The mechanism for these effects is mediated primarily by stimulation of opioid receptors in the GI tract. In patients with pain, uncontrolled symptoms of OBD can add to their discomfort and may serve as a barrier to effective pain management, limiting therapy, or prompting discontinuation. Patients with cancer may have disease-related constipation, which is usually worsened by opioid therapy. However, OBD is not limited to cancer patients. A recent survey of patients taking opioid therapy for pain of noncancer origin found that approximately 40% of patients experienced constipation related to opioid therapy ( 50% of the time. Laxatives prescribed prophylactically and throughout opioid therapy may improve bowel movements in many patients. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients will not obtain adequate relief of OBD because of its refractory nature. Naloxone and other tertiary opioid receptor antagonists effectively reduce the symptoms of constipation in opioid-treated patients. However, because they also act centrally, they may provoke opioid withdrawal symptoms or reverse analgesia in some patients. There are 2 peripherally selective opioid receptor antagonists, methylnaltrexone and ADL 8-2698 (Adolor Corporation, Exton, PA, USA), that are currently under investigation for their use in treating OBD. Early studies confirm that they are effective at normalizing bowel function in opioid-treated patients without entering the central nervous system and affecting analgesia. With a better understanding of the prevalence of OBD and its pathophysiology, a more aggressive approach to preventing and treating OBD is possible and will likely improve the quality of life of patients with pain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                14 January 2015
                : 11
                : 95-105
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
                [2 ]Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA
                [3 ]Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA
                [4 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nalini Vadivelu, Department of Anesthesiology Yale University School of Medicine 333 Cedar Street, TMP 3 New Haven, CT 06520, USA, Email nalini.vadivelu@ 123456yale.edu
                Article
                tcrm-11-095
                10.2147/TCRM.S32193
                4298300
                © 2015 Vadivelu et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                pain management, chronic pain, analgesia, pharmacology, neuropathic pain

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