Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Camels, MERS-CoV, and other emerging infections in east Africa

      a , b , a , c

      The Lancet. Infectious Diseases

      Elsevier Ltd.

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Although human Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection seems to be associated with exposure to animals, including camels, identification of the animal reservoir remains challenging.1, 2, 3 We believe that this gap results from the fact that surveillance systems for diseases in both human beings and animals remain fragmented and fail to take into account the social and ecological contexts within which diseases emerge. Additionally, there is a paucity of data for emerging infectious diseases in animals, especially camels in east Africa. For example, most MERS-CoV cases have been identified in the Arabian Peninsula, in places with robust health care, veterinary care, and disease surveillance. Although preliminary data link some cases of human MERS-CoV to exposure to dromedary camels or their products,1, 2 reliable health records of both human beings and animals cannot confirm a causal relationship. At the same time, many of the camels in the Arabian Peninsula derive from herds in east Africa, where both human and animal health systems, including surveillance, remain inadequate. To understand the potential reservoirs and prevalence of MERS-CoV, and in the absence of surveillance and clinical data in east Africa, some researchers have tapped into banked animal and human biological specimen repositories as a proxy for baseline data. 3 Findings of retrospective serosurveys done between 1983 to 1997 in east Africa showed that most (up to 81%) camels were exposed or infected as early as 1980. 3 However, these findings do not consider exposure to other viruses or the potential sources of exposure. Indeed, although not recognised until now, MERS-CoV infection seems likely among east African camels, but the lack of surveillance delays its detection. Further, in human and camel populations, MERS-CoV infections might be masked by other common comorbidities. Thus, one of the challenges of surveillance is that syndromic definitions cannot differentiate MERS-CoV from pneumonia, tuberculosis, and other common respiratory infections; MERS-CoV cases might go undetected in human beings and in camels, necessitating confirmatory diagnostics.4, 5, 6 In addition to MERS, tuberculosis poses another, arguably more economically important, zoonotic disease in camels and other livestock in east Africa. The disease is transmitted from infected animals through bodily fluids, including milk, and might cause up to 10% of the global human tuberculosis burden. 7 Although no population-based studies of tuberculosis in human or camel populations in east Africa specify mycobacterium species, data from small studies suggest that ethnic Somalis' extraordinarily high rates of tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis without high prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be related to their exposure to tuberculosis in livestock milks. 8 Even so, little research or policy work has been done to address these potential sources of spillover and infection. Although tuberculosis interventions in domesticated, non-mobile livestock have proven successful, surveillance and control for camel herds remain restricted because of their mobility and the poverty and disintegration of many local and regional agricultural and health bureaus. 7 Camels are central to the diets, economies, and cultures of millions of people in east Africa. Camel milk is typically consumed—and strongly preferred—without pasteurisation or other processing, and milk and meat economies are mostly unregulated, informal, and thus outside the purview of governmental and international regulation. 9 More than 65% of the world's camels are raised by ethnic Somalis in Ethiopia, Somaliland, and Somalia, 8 and production has increased exponentially in the past 15 years, including among non-Somali groups in east Africa. Prices for camels have risen as much as ten times 10 and exports from Africa to the Middle East are increasing substantially. 11 Despite the importance of camels to so many lives and livelihoods, the absence of effective monitoring and sustainable disease reporting systems within and between countries in the region keep proximal populations vulnerable to both anticipated and unexpected disease outbreaks. 12 In addition to MERS-CoV and tuberculosis, other emerging infectious diseases linked to camels include Rift Valley fever, brucellosis, trypanosomiasis, adenovirus, equine herpes virus, and camelpox. There are gaps in data on each of these, as well as about the association between different zoonotic diseases in increasing risks of comorbidity. Research is necessary to understand if and how MERS-CoV or tuberculosis, for example, might heighten risk of other infections, and vice versa, in both human beings and animals. As preliminary research on emergent zoonoses in camels suggest, infectious diseases and surveillance systems cannot be regarded alone or in isolation from their broader social and ecological environment.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 4

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Camels, Eastern Africa, 1983–1997

          To analyze the distribution of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)–seropositive dromedary camels in eastern Africa, we tested 189 archived serum samples accumulated during the past 30 years. We identified MERS-CoV neutralizing antibodies in 81.0% of samples from the main camel-exporting countries, Sudan and Somalia, suggesting long-term virus circulation in these animals.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013.

            In Saudi Arabia, including regions of Riyadh and Al Ahsa, pseudoparticle neutralisation (ppNT) and microneutralisation (MNT) tests detected no antibodies to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in sheep (n= 100), goats (n= 45), cattle (n= 50) and chickens (n= 240). Dromedary camels however, had a high prevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infected sera from cattle had no cross-reactivity in MERS-CoV ppNT or MNT, while many dromedary camels’ sera reacted to both BCoV and MERS-CoV. Some nevertheless displayed specific serologic reaction profiles to MERS-CoV.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels, Oman, 2013.

              A countrywide survey in Oman revealed Middle Eastrespiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) nucleicacid in five of 76 dromedary camels. Camel-derivedMERS-CoV sequences (3,754 nucleotides assembled from partial sequences of the open reading frame (ORF)1a, spike, and ORF4b genes) from Oman and Qatar were slightly different from each other, but closely related to human MERS-CoV sequences from the same geographical areas, suggesting local zoonotic transmission. High viral loads in nasal and conjunctival swabs suggest possible transmission by the respiratory route.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Lancet Infect Dis
                Lancet Infect Dis
                The Lancet. Infectious Diseases
                Elsevier Ltd.
                1473-3099
                1474-4457
                15 December 2015
                January 2016
                15 December 2015
                : 16
                : 1
                : 14-15
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Global Health, School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
                [b ]School of International Service, American University, Washington, DC, USA
                [c ]Animal Population Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Colorado, CO, USA
                Article
                S1473-3099(15)00471-5
                10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00471-5
                7129322
                26738820
                Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                Comments

                Comment on this article