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      The Laminin α Chains: Expression, Developmental Transitions, and Chromosomal Locations of α1-5, Identification of Heterotrimeric Laminins 8–11, and Cloning of a Novel α3 Isoform

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          Abstract

          Laminin trimers composed of α, β, and γ chains are major components of basal laminae (BLs) throughout the body. To date, three α chains (α1–3) have been shown to assemble into at least seven heterotrimers (called laminins 1–7). Genes encoding two additional α chains (α4 and α5) have been cloned, but little is known about their expression, and their protein products have not been identified. Here we generated antisera to recombinant α4 and α5 and used them to identify authentic proteins in tissue extracts. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting showed that α4 and α5 assemble into four novel laminin heterotrimers (laminins 8–11: α4β1γ1, α4β2γ1, α5β1γ1, and α5β2γ1, respectively). Using a panel of nucleotide and antibody probes, we surveyed the expression of α1-5 in murine tissues. All five chains were expressed in both embryos and adults, but each was distributed in a distinct pattern at both RNA and protein levels. Overall, α4 and α5 exhibited the broadest patterns of expression, while expression of α1 was the most restricted. Immunohistochemical analysis of kidney, lung, and heart showed that the α chains were confined to extracellular matrix and, with few exceptions, to BLs. All developing and adult BLs examined contained at least one α chain, all α chains were present in multiple BLs, and some BLs contained two or three α chains. Detailed analysis of developing kidney revealed that some individual BLs, including those of the tubule and glomerulus, changed in laminin chain composition as they matured, expressing up to three different α chains and two different β chains in an elaborate and dynamic progression. Interspecific backcross mapping of the five α chain genes revealed that they are distributed on four mouse chromosomes. Finally, we identified a novel full-length α3 isoform encoded by the Lama3 gene, which was previously believed to encode only truncated chains. Together, these results reveal remarkable diversity in BL composition and complexity in BL development.

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Integrins and signal transduction pathways: the road taken.

            Adhesive interactions play critical roles in directing the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells; aberrations in such interactions can lead to pathological disorders. These adhesive interactions, mediated by cell surface receptors that bind to ligands on adjacent cells or in the extracellular matrix, also regulate intracellular signal transduction pathways that control adhesion-induced changes in cell physiology. Though the extracellular molecular interactions involving many adhesion receptors have been well characterized, the adhesion-dependent intracellular signaling events that regulate these physiological alterations have only begun to be elucidated. This article will focus on recent advances in our understanding of intracellular signal transduction pathways regulated by the integrin family of adhesion receptors.
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              The human mutator gene homolog MSH2 and its association with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer.

              We have identified a human homolog of the bacterial MutS and S. cerevisiae MSH proteins, called hMSH2. Expression of hMSH2 in E. coli causes a dominant mutator phenotype, suggesting that hMSH2, like other divergent MutS homologs, interferes with the normal bacterial mismatch repair pathway. hMSH2 maps to human chromosome 2p22-21 near a locus implicated in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). A T to C transition mutation has been detected in the -6 position of a splice acceptor site in sporadic colon tumors and in affected individuals of two small HNPCC kindreds. These data and reports indicating that S. cerevisiae msh2 mutations cause an instability of dinucleotide repeats like those associated with HNPCC suggest that hMSH2 is the HNPCC gene.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                5 May 1997
                : 137
                : 3
                : 685-701
                Affiliations
                [* ]Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, []Department of Internal Medicine (Renal Division), [§ ]Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, 63110; and []Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, ABL-Basic Research Program, National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702
                Article
                2139892
                9151674
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology

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