The therapeutic use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) causes unwanted hematological side effects, although the underlying mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that rosiglitazone impairs the maintenance and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which ultimately leads to hematological abnormalities.
Mice were fed a rosiglitazone-supplemented diet or a normal diet for 6 weeks. To induce hematopoietic stress, all mice were injected once with 250 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) intraperitoneally. Next, hematopoietic recovery, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) subsets, and myeloid differentiation after 5-Fu treatment were evaluated. The adipogenesis induced by rosiglitazone was assessed by histopathology and oil red O staining. The effect of adipocytes on HSPCs was studied with an in vitro co-culture system.
Rosiglitazone significantly enhanced bone marrow adipogenesis and delayed hematopoietic recovery after 5-Fu treatment. Moreover, rosiglitazone inhibited proliferation of a granulocyte/monocyte progenitor (GMP) cell population and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) colonies, although the proliferation and mobilization of Lin-c-kit+Sca-1+ cells (LSK) was maintained following hematopoietic stress. These effects could be partially reversed by the selective PPARγ antagonist BADGE. Finally, we demonstrated in a co-culture system that differentiated adipocytes actively suppressed the myeloid differentiation of HSPCs.