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      Onsite investigation at a mail-order hatchery following a multistate Salmonella illness outbreak linked to live poultry—United States, 2018

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          Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC), health departments, and other state and federal partners have linked contact with live poultry to 70 human Salmonella outbreaks in the United States from 2000 to 2017, which resulted in a total of 4,794 illnesses, 894 hospitalizations, and 7 deaths. During human salmonellosis outbreaks environmental sampling is rarely conducted as part of the outbreak investigation. CDC was contacted by state health officials on June 12, 2018, to provide support during an investigation of risk factors for Salmonella infections linked to live poultry originating at a mail-order hatchery. From January 1, 2018, to June 15, 2018, 13 human Salmonella infections in multiple states were attributed to exposure to live poultry from a single hatchery. Two serotypes of Salmonella were associated with these infections, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Litchfield. Molecular subtyping of the S. Enteritidis clinical isolates revealed they were closely related genetically (within 0 to 9 alleles) by core genome multi-locus sequence typing ( cgMLST) to isolates obtained from environmental samples taken from hatchery shipping containers received at retail outlets. Environmental sampling and onsite investigation of practices was conducted at the mail-order hatchery during an investigation on June 19, 2018. A total of 45 environmental samples were collected, and 4 (9%) grew Salmonella. A chick box liner from a box in the pre-shipping area yielded an isolate closely related to the S. Enteritidis outbreak strain (within 1 to 9 alleles by cgMLST). The onsite investigation revealed lapses in biosecurity, sanitation, quality assurance, and education of consumers. Review of Salmonella serotype testing performed by the hatchery revealed that the number of samples and type of samples collected monthly varied. Also, S. Enteritidis was identified at the hatchery every year since testing began in 2016. Recommendations to the hatchery for biosecurity, testing, and sanitation measures were made to help reduce burden of Salmonella in the hatchery and breeding flocks, thereby reducing the occurrence of human illness.

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          Estimates of enteric illness attributable to contact with animals and their environments in the United States.

          Contact with animals and their environment is an important, and often preventable, route of transmission for enteric pathogens. This study estimated the annual burden of illness attributable to animal contact for 7 groups of pathogens: Campylobacter species, Cryptosporidium species, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, STEC non-O157, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella species, and Yersinia enterocolitica. By using data from the US Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network and other sources, we estimated the proportion of illnesses attributable to animal contact for each pathogen and applied those proportions to the estimated annual number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths among US residents. We established credible intervals (CrIs) for each estimate. We estimated that 14% of all illnesses caused by these 7 groups of pathogens were attributable to animal contact. This estimate translates to 445 213 (90% CrI, 234 197-774 839) illnesses annually for the 7 groups combined. Campylobacter species caused an estimated 187 481 illnesses annually (90% CrI, 66 259-372 359), followed by nontyphoidal Salmonella species (127 155; 90% CrI, 66 502-219 886) and Cryptosporidium species (113 344; 90% CrI, 22 570-299 243). Of an estimated 4933 hospitalizations (90% CrI, 2704-7914), the majority were attributable to nontyphoidal Salmonella (48%), Campylobacter (38%), and Cryptosporidium (8%) species. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (62%), Campylobacter (22%), and Cryptosporidium (9%) were also responsible for the majority of the estimated 76 deaths (90% CrI, 5-211). Animal contact is an important transmission route for multiple major enteric pathogens. Continued efforts are needed to prevent pathogen transmission from animals to humans, including increasing awareness and encouraging hand hygiene.
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            Source attribution of human salmonellosis: an overview of methods and estimates.

            Reducing the burden of foodborne salmonellosis is challenging. It requires identification of the most important food sources causing disease and prioritization of effective intervention strategies. For this purpose, a variety of methods to estimate the relative contribution of different sources of Salmonella infections have been applied worldwide. Each has strengths and limitations, and the usefulness of each depends on the public health questions being addressed. In this study, we reviewed the source attribution methods and outcomes of several studies developed in different countries and settings, comparing approaches and regional differences in attribution estimates. Reviewed results suggest that illnesses and outbreaks are most commonly attributed to exposure to contaminated food, and that eggs, broiler chickens, and pigs are among the top sources. Although most source attribution studies do not attribute salmonellosis to produce, outbreak data in several countries suggest that exposure to raw vegetables is also an important source. International travel was also a consistently important exposure in several studies. Still, the relative contribution of specific sources to human salmonellosis varied substantially between studies. Although differences in data inputs, methods, and the point in the food system where attribution was estimated contribute to variability between studies, observed differences also suggest regional differences in the epidemiology of salmonellosis.
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              Emergence of Salmonella epidemics: the problems related to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and multiple antibiotic resistance in other major serotypes.

              Two major changes in the epidemiology of salmonellosis occurred in the second half of the 20th century: the emergence of food-borne human infections caused by S. Enteritidis and by multiple-antibiotic resistant strains of Salmonella. This review updates information on the S. Enteritidis pandemic and focuses on the emergence of Salmonella, carrying the SGI1 antibiotic resistance gene cluster, resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, or resistant to fluoroquinolones. The factors responsible for the emergence of these Salmonella strains could be either of human origin or related to bacterial genome evolution. However, our increasing understanding of the molecular fluidity of the genome shows that any attempt to counteract bacteria results in further bacterial evolution or adaptation of other bacteria to take place in the new free ecological niche. In these conditions, we can ask who is faster: humans who want to eliminate bacterial pathogens or bacteria that continuously evolve to gain new niches.

                Author and article information

                Poult Sci
                Poult. Sci
                Poultry Science
                Poultry Science Association, Inc.
                December 2019
                03 October 2019
                03 October 2019
                : 98
                : 12
                : 6964-6972
                [1 ] Epidemic Intelligence Service , CDC, Atlanta GA, 30333, United States
                [2 ] Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases , CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, United States
                [3 ] Bureau of Epidemiology and Population Health, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services , Lansing, MI 48909, United States
                [4 ] Laboratory Leadership Service , CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, United States
                [5 ] Bureau of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services , Lansing, MI 48909, United States
                [6 ] Ottawa County Department of Public Health , Holland, MI 49424, United States
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: nrb4@ 123456cdc.gov
                © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oup.com .

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Microbiology and Food Safety

                salmonella, hatchery management, environment


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