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      Basement Membrane Defects in Genetic Kidney Diseases

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          Abstract

          The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a specialized structure with a significant role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. This GBM is formed from the fusion of two basement membranes during development and its function in the filtration barrier is achieved by key extracellular matrix components including type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The characteristics of specific matrix isoforms such as laminin-521 (α5β2γ1) and the α3α4α5 chain of type IV collagen are essential for the formation of a mature GBM and the restricted tissue distribution of these isoforms makes the GBM a unique structure. Detailed investigation of the GBM has been driven by the identification of inherited abnormalities in matrix proteins and the need to understand pathogenic mechanisms causing severe glomerular disease. A well-described hereditary GBM disease is Alport syndrome, associated with a progressive glomerular disease, hearing loss, and lens defects due to mutations in the genes COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5. Other proteins associated with inherited diseases of the GBM include laminin β2 in Pierson syndrome and LMX1B in nail patella syndrome. The knowledge of these genetic mutations associated with GBM defects has enhanced our understanding of cell–matrix signaling pathways affected in glomerular disease. This review will address current knowledge of GBM-associated abnormalities and related signaling pathways, as well as discussing the advances toward disease-targeted therapies for patients with glomerular disease.

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          Most cited references 153

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          A simplified laminin nomenclature.

          A simplification of the laminin nomenclature is presented. Laminins are multidomain heterotrimers composed of alpha, beta and gamma chains. Previously, laminin trimers were numbered with Arabic numerals in the order discovered, that is laminins-1 to -5. We introduce a new identification system for a trimer using three Arabic numerals, based on the alpha, beta and gamma chain numbers. For example, the laminin with the chain composition alpha5beta1gamma1 is termed laminin-511, and not laminin-10. The current practice is also to mix two overlapping domain and module nomenclatures. Instead of the older Roman numeral nomenclature and mixed nomenclature, all modules are now called domains. Some domains are renamed or renumbered. Laminin epidermal growth factor-like (LE) domains are renumbered starting at the N-termini, to be consistent with general protein nomenclature. Domain IVb of alpha chains is named laminin 4a (L4a), domain IVa of alpha chains is named L4b, domain IV of gamma chains is named L4, and domain IV of beta chains is named laminin four (LF). The two coiled-coil domains I and II are now considered one laminin coiled-coil domain (LCC). The interruption in the coiled-coil of beta chains is named laminin beta-knob (Lbeta) domain. The chain origin of a domain is specified by the chain nomenclature, such as alpha1L4a. The abbreviation LM is suggested for laminin. Otherwise, the nomenclature remains unaltered.
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            Consequences of lack of beta 1 integrin gene expression in mice.

            beta 1 integrins are cell-surface receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We have generated a null mutation in the gene for the beta 1 integrin subunit in mice and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Heterozygous mice are indistinguishable from normal littermates. Homozygous null embryos develop normally to the blastocyst stage, implant, and invade the uterine basement membrane but die shortly thereafter. Using beta 1 integrin-deficient ES cells we have established chimeric embryos and adult mice. Analysis of the chimeric embryos demonstrated the presence of beta 1 integrin-deficient cells in all germ layers indicating that beta 1-null cells can differentiate and migrate in a context of normal tissue. When evaluated at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5), embryos with a beta 1-null cell contribution below 25% were developing normally, whereas embryos with a contribution above this threshold were distorted and showed abnormal morphogenesis. In adult chimeric mice beta 1 integrin-deficient cells failed to colonize liver and spleen but were found in all other tissues analyzed at levels from 2%-25%. Immunostaining of chimeric mice showed that in cardiac muscle, there were small, scattered patches of myocytes that were beta 1-null. In contrast, many myotubes showed some beta 1-null contribution as a result of fusion between wild-type and mutant myoblasts to form mixed myotubes. The adult chimeric brain contained beta 1-null cells in all regions analyzed. Also, tissues derived from the neural crest contained beta 1 integrin-deficient cells indicating that migration of neuronal cells as well as neural crest cells can occur in the absence of beta 1 integrins.
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              Supramolecular assembly of basement membranes.

               R. M. Brown,  R Timpl (1996)
              Basement membranes are thin sheets of extracellular proteins situated in close contact with cells at various locations in the body. They have a great influence on tissue compartmentalization and cellular phenotypes from early embryonic development onwards. The major constituents of all basement membranes are collagen IV and laminin, which both exist as multiple isoforms and each form a huge irregular network by self assembly. These networks are connected by nidogen, which also binds to several other components (proteoglycans, fibulins). Basement membranes are connected to cells by several receptors of the integrin family, which bind preferentially to laminins and collagen IV, and via some lectin-type interactions. The formation of basement membranes requires cooperation between different cell types since nidogen, for example, is usually synthesized by cells other than those exposed to the basement membranes. Thus many molecular interactions, of variable affinities, determine the final shape of basement membranes and their preferred subanatomical localization.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pediatr
                Front Pediatr
                Front. Pediatr.
                Frontiers in Pediatrics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2360
                29 January 2018
                2018
                : 6
                Affiliations
                1Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, Division of Cell Matrix Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester , Manchester, United Kingdom
                2Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre , Manchester, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Max Christoph Liebau, Universitätsklinikum Köln, Germany

                Reviewed by: Kimberly Jean Reidy, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States; Francois Cachat, University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland; Silviu Grisaru, University of Calgary, Canada

                *Correspondence: Rachel Lennon, rachel.lennon@ 123456manchester.ac.uk

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Pediatric Nephrology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pediatrics

                Article
                10.3389/fped.2018.00011
                5796894
                Copyright © 2018 Chew and Lennon.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 185, Pages: 16, Words: 12945
                Funding
                Funded by: Wellcome Trust 10.13039/100004440
                Award ID: 202860/Z/16/Z
                Funded by: Arthritis Research UK 10.13039/501100000341
                Award ID: 21370
                Categories
                Pediatrics
                Review

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