The effects of morphine (M) and naloxone (N) on serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) in prepubertal male and female rats were investigated. N raised serum LH concentrations in female rats at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days of age, but increased serum LH levels in male prepubertal rats only at 30 days of age. M significantly depressed serum LH values in both sexes only at 15 days of age. M increased serum PRL levels in immature rats of both sexes in all age groups, except in 25-day-old males, whereas N decreased serum PRL only in 25-day-old male rats. These data show that there are differences in the pituitary LH and PRL responses to M or N of immature as compared to the responses previously reported in mature rats, and suggest that the endogenous opioid peptides may have a role in regulating LH and PRL secretion in immature rats.