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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: updated perspectives


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          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited multisystem disorder, characterized by renal and extra-renal fluid-filled cyst formation and increased kidney volume that eventually leads to end-stage renal disease. ADPKD is considered the fourth leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States and globally. Care of patients with ADPKD was, for a long time, limited to supportive lifestyle measures, due to the lack of therapeutic strategies targeting the main pathways involved in the pathophysiology of ADPKD. As the first FDA approved treatment of ADPKD, Vasopressin (V 2) receptor blocking agent, tolvaptan, is an urgently awaited advance for ADPKD patients. In our review, we also shed some lights on what is beyond Tolvaptan as there are other medications in the pipeline and many medications have been or are currently being studied in clinical trials such as Tesevatinib, Metformin and Pravastatin, with the goal of slowing the rate of progression of ADPKD by reducing the increase in total kidney volume or maintaining eGFR. Here, we review updates in the perspectives and management of ADPKD.

          Most cited references84

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          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

          Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal, monogenic disorder. It is associated with large interfamilial and intrafamilial variability, which can be explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of the disorder's underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the development of clinical trials and potentially effective treatments.
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            Tolvaptan in Later-Stage Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

            In a previous trial involving patients with early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD; estimated creatinine clearance, ≥60 ml per minute), the vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan slowed the growth in total kidney volume and the decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but also caused more elevations in aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. The efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in patients with later-stage ADPKD are unknown.
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              Unified criteria for ultrasonographic diagnosis of ADPKD.

              Individuals who are at risk for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are often screened by ultrasound using diagnostic criteria derived from individuals with mutations in PKD1. Families with mutations in PKD2 typically have less severe disease, suggesting a potential need for different diagnostic criteria. In this study, 577 and 371 at-risk individuals from 58 PKD1 and 39 PKD2 families, respectively, were assessed by renal ultrasound and molecular genotyping. Using sensitivity data derived from genetically affected individuals and specificity data derived from genetically unaffected individuals, various diagnostic criteria were compared. In addition, data sets were created to simulate the PKD1 and PKD2 case mix expected in practice to evaluate the performance of diagnostic criteria for families of unknown genotype. The diagnostic criteria currently in use performed suboptimally for individuals with mutations in PKD2 as a result of reduced test sensitivity. In families of unknown genotype, the presence of three or more (unilateral or bilateral) renal cysts is sufficient for establishing the diagnosis in individuals aged 15 to 39 y, two or more cysts in each kidney is sufficient for individuals aged 40 to 59 y, and four or more cysts in each kidney is required for individuals > or = 60 yr. Conversely, fewer than two renal cysts in at-risk individuals aged > or = 40 yr is sufficient to exclude the disease. These unified diagnostic criteria will be useful for testing individuals who are at risk for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the usual clinical setting in which molecular genotyping is seldom performed.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                26 August 2019
                : 15
                : 1041-1052
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, David Geffen School of Medicine , Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Divison of Nephrology, University of Illinois at Chicago/Advocate Christ Medical Center, Section of Nephrology , Oak Lawn, IL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Edgar V LermaUniversity of Illinois at Chicago/Advocate Christ Medical Center , 4400 W 95th, Oak Lawn, IL60453, USATel +1 708 227 7305Email nephron0@gmail.com
                © 2019 Rastogi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 31 May 2019
                : 01 August 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 91, Pages: 12

                vasopressin receptor antagonist,tolvaptan,metformin,total kidney volume,chronic kidney disease,hypertension


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