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      A Comparison of Dosing Regimens of Paricalcitol Capsule for the Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in CKD Stages 3 and 4

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          Background: Intermittent dosing of calcitriol for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) has been associated with greater parathyroid hormone (PTH) reduction with fewer calcemic and phosphatemic effects than daily (QD) dosing. Methods: Secondary analyses of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter studies in stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with SHPT were performed to compare three times per week (TIW) with QD dosing of paricalcitol. The pharmacokinetics of TIW and QD dosing of paricalcitol capsules were assessed in a separate group of healthy subjects. Results: Pharmacokinetics revealed similar steady state paricalcitol exposure between dosing regimens. In CKD patients, baseline data were similar between the TIW studies (n = 72, paricalcitol; n = 73, placebo) and QD studies (n = 35, paricalcitol; n = 40, placebo). Both dosing regimens resulted in similar efficacy (91%) for the primary end point of two consecutive ≧30% decreases in intact PTH from baseline, but the QD regimen resulted in a greater percent reduction in intact PTH from baseline. The chances for developing increased serum calcium and phosphorus levels or Ca × P product were similar between paricalcitol and placebo groups for both treatment regimens. Furthermore, no difference in the risk for these elevations was detected between the TIW and QD regimens. Conclusions: QD dosing of paricalcitol capsules is as efficacious as TIW dosing in achieving the primary end point (2 consecutive ≧30% reductions in PTH) in stage 3 and 4 CKD patients with SHPT. Moreover, the QD regimen had no significant effect on hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia or Ca × P product as compared with placebo or intermittent dosing.

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          Paricalcitol versus calcitriol in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

          Management of secondary hyperparathyroidism has included the use of active vitamin D or vitamin D analogs for the suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Although, these agents are effective, therapy is frequently limited by hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and/or elevations in the calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product. In clinical studies, paricalcitol was shown to be effective at reducing PTH concentrations without causing significant hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia as compared to placebo. A comparative study was undertaken in order to determine whether paricalcitol provides a therapeutic advantage to calcitriol. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter study comparing the safety and effectiveness of intravenous paricalcitol and calcitriol in suppressing PTH concentrations in hemodialysis patients was performed. A total of 263 randomized patients were enrolled at domestic and international sites. Following the baseline period, patients with serum Ca x P or =300 pg/mL were randomly assigned to receive either paricalcitol or calcitriol in a dose-escalating fashion for up to 32 weeks. Dose adjustments were based on laboratory results for PTH, calcium, and Ca x P. The primary end point was the greater than 50% reduction in baseline PTH. Secondary end points were the occurrence of hypercalcemia and elevated Ca x P product. Paricalcitol-treated patients achieved a > or =50% reduction from baseline PTH significantly faster than did the calcitriol-treated patients (P = 0.025) and achieved a mean reduction of PTH into a desired therapeutic range (100 to 300 pg/mL) at approximately week 18, whereas the calcitriol-treated patients, as a group, were unable to achieve this range. Moreover, paricalcitol-treated patients had significantly fewer sustained episodes of hypercalcemia and/or increased Ca x P product than calcitriol patients (P = 0.008). Paricalcitol treatment reduced PTH concentrations more rapidly with fewer sustained episodes of hypercalcemia and increased Ca x P product than calcitriol therapy.
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            Paricalcitol capsule for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in stages 3 and 4 CKD.

            The safety and efficacy of paricalcitol injection have been well established for the prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5. The capsule form of paricalcitol was developed to provide a convenient dosage form for patients with stages 3 and 4 CKD. Three randomized, placebo-controlled, phase-3 trials were conducted in patients with stages 3 and 4 CKD with SHPT. Enrollment criteria included an estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (0.25 and 1.00 mL/s/1.73 m2), an average of 2 consecutive intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels greater than 150 pg/mL (ng/L), 2 consecutive serum calcium levels between 8.0 and 10.0 mg/dL (2.00 and 2.50 mmol/L), and 2 consecutive serum phosphorus levels of 5.2 mg/dL or less (< or = 1.68 mmol/L). Two studies used a thrice-weekly dosing regimen and 1 study used a once-daily dosing regimen for 24 weeks. Dosing was based on serum iPTH, calcium, and phosphorus levels. The primary efficacy end point is 2 consecutive decreases in iPTH levels greater than 30% from baseline. Two hundred twenty patients participated (n = 107, paricalcitol; n = 113, placebo). At least 2 consecutive decreases in iPTH levels of 30% or greater from baseline occurred in 91% of paricalcitol versus 13% of placebo patients (P < 0.001). Incidences of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated calcium-phosphorus product levels were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, no significant differences in urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion or deterioration in kidney function were detected in patients administered paricalcitol compared with placebo. Paricalcitol capsule was well tolerated and effectively decreased iPTH levels with minimal or no impact on calcium levels, phosphorus balance, and kidney function in patients with stages 3 and 4 CKD.
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              Doxercalciferol safely suppresses PTH levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic kidney disease stages 3 and 4.

              Calcitriol lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 and 4, but its use is limited by a low therapeutic index and concerns regarding hypercalcemia and acceleration of kidney disease. We evaluated doxercalciferol (1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2) as an alternative therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Fifty-five adults with stage 3 or 4 CKD and an intact PTH (iPTH) level greater than 85 pg/mL (ng/L) completed 8 baseline weeks, followed by 24 weeks of oral therapy with doxercalciferol or placebo. Pretreatment demographics and biochemical features did not differ between groups. Dosages were increased gradually if iPTH level was not decreased by 30% or greater and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were stable. Regular monitoring included plasma iPTH, serum calcium and phosphorus, urinary calcium, bone-specific serum markers, and serum lalpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured before and after treatment. Mean plasma iPTH level decreased by 46% from baseline after 24 weeks of doxercalciferol treatment (P <0.001), but was unchanged with placebo. After 6 weeks, iPTH level reductions with doxercalciferol treatment exceeded those with placebo at all subsequent intervals (P <0.001). No clinically significant differences in mean serum calcium or phosphorus or urinary calcium levels or incidence of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, or hypercalciuria were noted between groups. Serum C- and N-telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels decreased with doxercalciferol treatment relative to both baseline and placebo (P <0.01). Adverse-event rates and changes in GFR did not differ between groups. Doxercalciferol is safe and effective in controlling secondary hyperparathyroidism of patients with CKD stages 3 and 4.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                April 2006
                05 April 2006
                : 26
                : 1
                : 105-114
                aUniversity of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Tex., bWashington University, St. Louis, Mo., USA; cProvincial Specialistic Hospital, Krakow, Poland; dUniversity of Colorado, Denver, Colo., eTwin Cities Clinical Research, Arden Hills, Minn., fAbbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill., and gNorthwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill., USA
                92033 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:105–114
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 24, Pages: 10
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                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


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