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      LncRNA DLX6-AS1 Contributes to Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Cisplatin Resistance in Triple-negative Breast Cancer via Modulating Mir-199b-5p/Paxillin Axis

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          Abstract

          Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive cancer types with high recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance. Recent studies report that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-mediated competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) play an important role in tumorigenesis and drug resistance of TNBC. Although elevated lncRNA DLX6 antisense RNA 1 (DLX6-AS1) has been observed to promote carcinogenesis in various cancers, the role in TNBC remained unclear. In this study, expression levels of DLX6-AS1 were increased in TNBC tissues and cell lines when compared with normal tissues or breast fibroblast cells which were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Then, CCK-8 assay, cell colony formation assay and western blot were performed in CAL-51 cells transfected with siRNAs of DLX6-AS1 or MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with DLX6-AS1 over expression plasmids. Knock down of DLX6-AS1 inhibited cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), decreased expression levels of BCL2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl-2), Snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (Snail) as well as N-cadherin and decreased expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, γ-catenin as well as E-cadherin, while up regulation of DLX6-AS1 had the opposite effect. Besides, knockdown of DLX6-AS1 in CAL-51 cells or up regulation of DLX6-AS1 in MDA-MB-231 cells also decreased or increased cisplatin resistance of those cells analyzed by MTT assay. Moreover, by using dual luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull down assay, a ceRNA which was consisted by lncRNA DLX6-AS1, microRNA-199b-5p (miR-199b-5p) and paxillin (PXN) was identified. And DLX6-AS1 function through miR-199b-5p/PXN in TNBC cells. Finally, results of xenograft experiments using nude mice showed that DLX6-AS1 regulated cell proliferation, EMT and cisplatin resistance by miR-199b-5p/PXN axis in vivo. In brief, DLX6-AS1 promoted cell proliferation, EMT, and cisplatin resistance through miR-199b-5p/PXN signaling in TNBC in vitro and in vivo.

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Breast cancer will be diagnosed in 12% of women in the United States over the course of their lifetimes and more than 250 000 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in the United States in 2017. This review focuses on current approaches and evolving strategies for local and systemic therapy of breast cancer.
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              Non-coding RNA networks in cancer

              Thousands of unique non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences exist within cells. Work from the past decade has altered our perception of ncRNAs from 'junk' transcriptional products to functional regulatory molecules that mediate cellular processes including chromatin remodelling, transcription, post-transcriptional modifications and signal transduction. The networks in which ncRNAs engage can influence numerous molecular targets to drive specific cell biological responses and fates. Consequently, ncRNAs act as key regulators of physiological programmes in developmental and disease contexts. Particularly relevant in cancer, ncRNAs have been identified as oncogenic drivers and tumour suppressors in every major cancer type. Thus, a deeper understanding of the complex networks of interactions that ncRNAs coordinate would provide a unique opportunity to design better therapeutic interventions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Transplant
                Cell Transplant
                CLL
                spcll
                Cell Transplantation
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                0963-6897
                1555-3892
                20 July 2020
                Jan-Dec 2020
                : 29
                : 0963689720929983
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China
                Author notes
                [*]Jingruo Li, Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No.1 Jianshe East Road, Erqi District, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province 450052, China. Email: JingruoLidjk@ 123456163.com
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2688-5938
                Article
                10.1177_0963689720929983
                10.1177/0963689720929983
                7563824
                32686982
                e636c80f-77af-42f9-a2ca-1d982a196627
                © The Author(s) 2020

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                History
                : 1 March 2020
                : 26 April 2020
                : 5 May 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: the Provincial Co-construction Alternative Project of Henan Province.;
                Award ID: 2018010002
                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2020
                ts3

                dlx6-as1,mir-199b-5p,paxillin,triple-negative breast cancer,cerna

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