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      Perforación intestinal espontánea durante el período neonatal Translated title: Spontaneous intestinal perforation during neonatal period

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          Abstract

          Introducción: La perforación intestinal espontánea (PIE) es una patología no habitual de baja frecuencia en el período neonatal. Objetivo: Describir la evolución clínica de dos recién nacidos (RN) con perforaciones intestinales espontáneas y discutir la presentación clínica, el diagnóstico imagenológico, el tratamiento médico quirúrgico y las posibles causas que pueden producir esta patología. Casos clínicos: RN de pretérmino, ambos de sexo masculino de 680 y 1 370 gramos de peso al nacer, que a las 36 horas de vida presentaron signos clínicos de distensión abdominal y compromiso del estado general. La sospecha diagnóstica se confirmó con radiografía de abdomen simple, efectuándose una laparotomía en la cual se encontró una perforación única del colon en el neonato de menor peso, y dos perforaciones del ileon terminal en el otro. En ambos neonatos se realizó resección intestinal y anastomosis término terminal. El RN de mayor peso y edad gestacional evolucionó satisfactoriamente y el otro falleció a los 4 días de vida por falla mutisistémica. Conclusión: La perforación gastrointestinal espontánea neonatal se presenta como una brusca y progresiva distensión abdominal, el diagnóstico se sospecha por clínica y por el neumoperitoneo en la radiología de abdomen, y se confirma en la laparotomía

          Translated abstract

          Background: Spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is a rare pathology in the neonatal period. Objective: To describe the clinical evolution of 2 newborns with spontaneous gastrointestinal perforations, in order to discuss clinical manifestations, diagnosis and medical-surgical treatment. Also, review possible events that may trigger this pathology. Case-reports: preterm newborns with SIP, both males with birth weight 680 and 1 370 g, showing clinical signs of abdominal distension before 36 hours of life. In both cases, the diagnostic suspicion arose from the abdominal radiography that revealed a pneumoperitoneum. Laparotomy was performed, where a single colon perforation was found in the smaller newborn and two ileum perforations in the other child. In both neonates, intestinal resection and end to end anastomosis was done. The newborn with major gestational age and birth weight evolved successfully, whereas the other one died at the 4° day of life due to systemic failure. Conclusion: Spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in neonates presents with abdominal distension. Diagnosis is suspected from clinical signs, abdominal radiology and confirmed by laparotomy

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          Most cited references31

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          Epidemiologic aspects of overweight and obesity in the United States.

          National survey data from the U.S. show that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults remained relatively constant over the 20-year period from 1960 to 1980, began to increase around the mid-1980s and has continued to increase. Data for children and adolescents, based on different definitions, show the same pattern. It can sometimes be more useful to look at the whole distribution of body mass index, rather than on prevalence estimates based on pre-defined cutoffs. Data from several countries suggest that for both adults and children, the distribution of BMI has become more skewed over time. Although many hypotheses have been put forward about the causes of the increases, data to address these issues are sparse. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for numerous health conditions. Nonetheless, the health consequences of the increases in obesity have not been fully delineated. Increases in diabetes have been noted in conjunction with the rise in obesity. On the other hand, declines in some other cardiovascular risk factors have been seen at all BMI levels. Rising life expectancy and decreasing heart disease mortality rates seem to confound some of the expectations about the effects of increasing obesity on mortality. The effects of obesity on morbidity may be greater than its effects on mortality. The increasing prevalence of obesity poses challenges for researchers and for policy makers.
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            Distinctive distribution of pathogens associated with peritonitis in neonates with focal intestinal perforation compared with necrotizing enterocolitis.

            Candida and coagulase-negative staphylococci are emerging pathogens associated with focal intestinal perforation (FIP) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are significant differences in the predominant pathogens in culture-positive cases of peritonitis associated with FIP compared with NEC in neonates. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted of neonates with peritoneal culture-positive peritonitis associated with FIP or NEC over a 12-year study period (1989-2000). Cases with peritonitis were identified from a microbiology database. NEC was defined by radiologic evidence of pneumatosis intestinalis or portal venous gas or by pathology reports or surgical operative notes describing large areas of transmural bowel necrosis. FIP was defined as a <1-cm intestinal perforation surrounded by otherwise normal tissue in the absence of NEC. Thirty-six cases of FIP were compared with 80 cases of NEC. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in infants with FIP compared with NEC. Age at intestinal perforation and case fatality rates were similar between FIP and NEC. There were striking differences in the distribution of predominant pathogens associated with peritonitis in NEC and FIP cases. Enterobacteriaceae were present in 60 (75%) of 80 NEC cases compared with 9 (25%) of 36 FIP cases. In contrast, Candida species were found in 16 (44%) of 36 FIP cases compared with 12 (15%) of 80 NEC cases, and coagulase-negative staphylococci were present in 18 (50%) of 36 FIP cases versus 11 (14%) of 80 NEC cases. There were no significant differences between FIP and NEC cases for the presence of Enterococcus species (28% vs 23%) or anaerobes (3% vs 6%). Stratified analysis for birth weight <1200 g found similar significant differences in the predominant pathogens for FIP (n = 29) and NEC (n = 38). Results from peritoneal fluid cultures resulted in changes in antimicrobial therapy in 46 (40%) of 116 cases. Candida species and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant pathogens in FIP peritonitis in contrast to Enterobacteriaceae in NEC peritonitis. A peritoneal fluid culture should be obtained in all neonates with intestinal perforation, regardless of cause, because it may help to direct the choice of the most effective antimicrobial.
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              New insights into spontaneous intestinal perforation using a national data set: (1) SIP is associated with early indomethacin exposure.

              Spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is increasingly common in the premature infant and is associated with significant morbidity. Indomethacin use has been implicated as a co-risk factor for SIP when combined with glucocorticoids, but previous evidence argued against indomethacin being an independent risk factor when used prophylactically. (1) To establish a homogeneous cohort of SIP patients in a national data set and to contrast them to patients with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). (2) To test the hypothesis that early post-natal indomethacin is independently associated with SIP. A large de-identified data set was retrospectively queried by diagnosis, and then multiple antenatal and post-natal variables were tested by both univariate and multivariate analysis to identify associations with SIP. Sub-analyses were also performed to look at the timing of drug administration. There were 2105 patients evaluated in the data set. Patients were divided into matched controls (n = 581), those with SIP without report of NEC (n = 633) and those with NEC requiring surgery (n = 891). Infants with SIP were more likely to have a patent ductus arteriosus and more likely to be treated with vasopressors than either control or NEC patients. Compared to infants with NEC, patients with SIP were smaller, less mature and required more support. SIP was also diagnosed earlier than NEC (median of 7 vs 15 days). Patients with SIP were more likely to be treated with indomethacin, hydrocortisone or both on days of life 0-3 than controls. (1) Surgical NEC and SIP have significant differences in presentation, demographics and morbidity. (2) A detailed look at drug timing revealed that early post-natal indomethacin is independently associated with SIP.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcp
                Revista chilena de pediatría
                Rev. chil. pediatr.
                Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría (Santiago, , Chile )
                0370-4106
                October 2006
                : 77
                : 5
                : 506-511
                Affiliations
                [02] orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Pediatría Chile
                [01] Concepción orgnameHospital G. Grant Benavente orgdiv1Servicio de Pediatría orgdiv2Unidad de Neonatología Chile
                Article
                S0370-41062006000500009 S0370-4106(06)07700500009
                10.4067/S0370-41062006000500009
                e63b67e7-a63f-4a7b-8561-6c55dc0b5812

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 6
                Product
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                Categories
                CASOS CLINICOS

                Spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation,espontánea,newborn,Perforación intestinal,abdominal distension,neonatal

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