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      Ultrapure Dialysis Fluid – Direct and Indirect Benefits in Dialysis Therapy

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          The fluid quality description ‘ultrapure’ means practically free from bacteria and endotoxin. In quantitative terms it is defined as <0.1 CFU/ml and <0.03 EU/ml. The requirements on endotoxin as well as bacteria should be fulfilled, because these two entities are not strictly correlated. Ultrapure dialysis fluid can be prepared from standard quality fluid by a single step of controlled ultrafiltration. Recent clinical studies demonstrate that the use of ultrapure dialysis fluid in hemodialysis is associated with patient benefits indicating a less inflammatory state compared to hemodialysis with standard fluid. By applying one additional step of controlled ultrafiltration, ultrapure dialysis fluid can be further purified to such high microbiological quality that it can be used for infusion. This opens up the possibility for convective therapies, hemodiafiltration and hemofiltration, for which large volumes of sterile infusion solution are needed. With optimal application of these therapies, solute removal is enhanced, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and fluid management is facilitated through improved hemodynamic stability.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Effects of high-flux hemodialysis on clinical outcomes: results of the HEMO study.

          Among the 1846 patients in the HEMO Study, chronic high-flux dialysis did not significantly affect the primary outcome of the all-cause mortality (ACM) rate or the main secondary composite outcomes, including the rates of first cardiac hospitalization or ACM, first infectious hospitalization or ACM, first 15% decrease in serum albumin levels or ACM, or all non-vascular access-related hospitalizations. The high-flux intervention, however, seemed to be associated with reduced risks of specific cardiac-related events. The relative risks (RR) for the high-flux arm, compared with the low-flux arm, were 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65 to 0.99] for cardiac death and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.00) for the composite of first cardiac hospitalization or cardiac death. Also, the effect of high-flux dialysis on ACM seemed to vary, depending on the duration of prior dialysis. This report presents secondary analyses to further explore the relationship between the flux intervention and the duration of dialysis with respect to various outcomes. The patients were stratified into a short-duration group and a long-duration group, on the basis of the mean duration of dialysis of 3.7 yr before randomization. In the subgroup that had been on dialysis for >3.7 yr, randomization to high-flux dialysis was associated with lower risks of ACM (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.86; P = 0.001), the composite of first albumin level decrease or ACM (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.91; P = 0.005), and cardiac deaths (RR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.92; P = 0.016), compared with low-flux dialysis. No significant differences were observed in outcomes related to infection for either duration subgroup, however, and the trends for beneficial effects of high-flux dialysis on ACM rates were considerably weakened when the years of dialysis during the follow-up phase were combined with the prestudy years of dialysis in the analysis. For the subgroup of patients with <3.7 yr of dialysis before the study, assignment to high-flux dialysis had no significant effect on any of the examined clinical outcomes. These data suggest that high-flux dialysis might have a beneficial effect on cardiac outcomes. Because these results are derived from multiple statistical comparisons, however, they must be interpreted with caution. The subgroup results that demonstrate that patients with different durations of dialysis are affected differently by high-flux dialysis are interesting and require further study for confirmation.
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            Dialysate related cytokine induction and response to recombinant human erythropoietin in haemodialysis patients.

            Chronic inflammatory disorders or infections represent a major cause of hyporesponsiveness to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo). To test the hypothesis that dialysate-related cytokine induction alters the response to rHuEpo, we conducted a prospective study with matched pairs of chronic haemodialysis patients. We compared the effect of two dialysis fluids, differing in their microbiological quality, on the rHuEpo therapy. Thirty male patients with end-stage renal disease maintained on regular haemodialysis were assigned either to a group treated with conventional (potentially microbiologically contaminated) dialysate (group I) or to a group treated with online-produced ultrapure dialysate (group II). Randomization was stratified according to the maintenance dose of rHuEpo necessary to maintain a target haemoglobin level of 10-10.5 g/dl. Patients were followed for 12 months. Kt/V was calculated by the formula of Daugirdas. Haemoglobin levels were measured weekly and serum ferritin concentrations were determined at 6-week intervals. C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was measured by an ELISA at the start of the study and after 3, 6 and 12 months. In group I, continuous use of bicarbonate dialysate did not change the rHuEpo dosage given to achieve the target haemoglobin level and was associated with elevated surrogate markers (CRP, IL-6) of cytokine-induced inflammation. The switch from conventional to online-produced ultrapure dialysate in group II resulted in a lower bacterial contamination with a significant decrease of CRP and IL-6 blood levels. It was accompanied by a significant and sustained reduction of the rHuEpo dosage, which was required to correct the anaemia. Using multiple regression analysis, IL-6 levels are shown to have a strong predictive value for rHuEpo dosage in both groups. Our data demonstrate that dialysate-related factors such as low bacterial contamination can induce the activation of monocytes, resulting in elevated serum levels of IL-6. Dialysate-related cytokine induction might diminish erythropoiesis. The use of pyrogen free ultrapure dialysate resulted in a better response to rHuEpo. Not only would it save money, but it would also help to maintain an optimal haemoglobin level without further increase in rHuEpo dosage.
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              Effects of ultrapure dialysis fluid on nutritional status and inflammatory parameters.

              Malnutrition and chronic systemic inflammatory response syndrome not only coexist in uraemia, but may also have a bi-directional cause-and-effect relationship. To evaluate the role of dialysate-related cytokine induction in inflammatory response and nutritional status, we conducted a prospective comparison of two dialysis fluids differing in their microbiological quality. Forty-eight early haemodialysis patients were assigned to either treatment with conventional (potentially microbiologically contaminated) or on-line produced ultrapure dialysis fluid. Study parameters were bacterial growth, markers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6), and parameters of nutritional status (estimated dry weight, upper mid-arm muscle circumference, serum albumin concentration, insulin-like growth factor 1, leptin, and protein catabolic rate). Patients were followed for 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and treatment characteristics, degree of bacterial contamination of the dialysate, markers of systemic inflammation, or parameters of nutritional status among the two treatment groups at recruitment. Changing from conventional to ultrapure dialysis fluid reduced significantly the levels of IL-6 (19+/-3 pg/ml to 13+/-3 pg/ml) and CRP (1.0+/- 0.4 mg/dl to 0.5+/-0.2 mg/dl), and resulted in significant increases in estimated dry body weight, mid-arm muscle circumference, serum albumin concentration, levels of the humoral factors, and in protein catabolic rate after 12 months. Continuous use of conventional dialysis fluid (median 40-60 c.f.u./ml) was not associated with significant alterations in markers of inflammation (IL-6 21+/-4 pg/ml vs 24+/-6 pg/ml, CRP 0.9+/-0.3 mg/dl vs 1.1+/-0.4 mg/dl) or of nutritional status at any time of the study. All differences in systemic inflammation and nutritional parameters observed during the study period (from recruitment to month 12) were significant between the two patient groups. Cytokine induction by microbiologically contaminated dialysis fluid has a negative impact on nutritional parameters of early haemodialysis patients. The microbiological quality of the dialysis fluid represents an independent determinant of the nutritional status in addition to known factors, such as dose of dialysis and biocompatibility of the dialyser membrane. Ultrapure dialysis fluid adds to the cost of the dialytic treatment, but may improve the nutritional status in long-term haemodialysis patients.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                January 2005
                27 January 2005
                : 22
                : Suppl 2
                : 20-25
                Gambro Corporate Research, Lund, Sweden
                81869 Blood Purif 2004;22(suppl 2):20–25
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, References: 44, Pages: 6
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