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      Protective immunity against acute toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice induced by a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii elongation factor 1-alpha

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          Abstract

          Background

          Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blood animals including human beings. The high incidence and severe damage that can be caused by T. gondii infection clearly indicates the need for the development of a vaccine. T. gondii elongation factor 1-alpha (TgEF-1α) plays an important role in pathogenesis and host cell invasion for this parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding TgEF-1α gene against acute T. gondii infection in mice.

          Methods

          A DNA vaccine (pVAX-EF-1α) encoding T. gondii EF-1a (TgEF-1α) gene was constructed and its immune response and protective efficacy against lethal challenge in BALB/c mice were evaluated.

          Results

          Mice inoculated with the pVAX-EF-1α vaccine had a high level of specific anti- T. gondii antibodies and produced high levels of IFN-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17. The expression levels of MHC-I and MHC-II molecules as well as the percentages of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in mice vaccinated with pVAX-EF-1α were significantly increased ( p < 0.05), compared with those in all the mice from control groups (blank control, PBS, and pVAXI). Immunization with pVAX-EF-1α significantly ( p < 0.05) prolonged mouse survival time to 14.1 ± 1.7 days after challenge infection with the virulent T. gondii RH strain, compared with mice in the control groups which died within 8 days.

          Conclusions

          DNA vaccination with pVAX-EF-1α triggered strong humoral and cellular responses and induced effective protection in mice against acute T. gondii infection, indicating that TgEF-1α is a promising vaccine candidate against acute toxoplasmosis.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Interleukin-17/interleukin-17 receptor-mediated signaling is important for generation of an optimal polymorphonuclear response against Toxoplasma gondii infection.

          We investigated the role of interleukin-17 (IL-17)/IL-17 receptor (IL-17R)-mediated signaling in the protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii. IL-17R(-/-) mice developed a normal adaptive immunity against the parasite. However, increased mortality in the knockout animals can be attributed to a defect in the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to infected sites during early infection.
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            Vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii: new developments and perspectives.

            Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a major public health problem, infecting one-third of the world human beings, and leads to abortion in domestic animals. A vaccine strategy would be an ideal tool for improving disease control. Many efforts have been made to develop vaccines against T. gondii to reduce oocyst shedding in cats and tissue cyst formation in mammals over the last 20 years, but only a live-attenuated vaccine based on the S48 strain has been licensed for veterinary use. Here, the authors review the recent development of T. gondii vaccines in cats, food-producing animals and mice, and present its future perspectives. However, a single or only a few antigen candidates revealed by various experimental studies are limited by only eliciting partial protective immunity against T. gondii. Future studies of T. gondii vaccines should include as many CTL epitopes as the live attenuated vaccines.
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              Elongation factor 1 alpha, translation and the cytoskeleton.

               J Condeelis (1995)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                tongbaiws1003@163.com
                453425665@qq.com
                2013107059@njau.edu.cn
                zhangzhenchao525@163.com
                2012207035@njau.edu.cn
                drgadahi@yahoo.com
                barrhoum@gmail.com
                xulixin@njau.edu.cn
                yanruofeng@njau.edu.cn
                songxiaokai@njau.edu.cn
                lixiangrui@njau.edu.cn
                Journal
                BMC Infect Dis
                BMC Infect. Dis
                BMC Infectious Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2334
                24 October 2015
                24 October 2015
                2015
                : 15
                Affiliations
                College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 PR China
                Article
                1220
                10.1186/s12879-015-1220-5
                4619988
                © Wang et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                toxoplasma gondii, tgef-1α, dna vaccine, protective immunity

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