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      Influence of Plant Physical and Anatomical Characteristics on the Ovipositional Preference of Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

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          Abstract

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          The minute pirate bug Orius sauteri is the predator of many soft-body pests and has great application prospect in pest suppression in Asia. Females need to insert their ovipositor into plant tissues to lay eggs. Thus, understanding its egg-laying preferences and creating it a beneficial habitat is important for its conversation in the field. We evaluated the ovipositional preference of the females for four noncrop plant species and how the plant characteristics influenced the ovipositional behavior of O. sauteri. Our results suggested that O. sauteri females were able to select oviposition host and specific sites through assessing the structural qualities of plants. Females were found to prefer plants with high stomatal density, a large stomatal area, and fewer trichomes as oviposition hosts, and the depth of egg placement was determined by leaf thickness. Coriander and marigold are potential oviposition plants for O. sauteri for high fecundity and egg hatchability. The results are helpful for selecting beneficial cover crops to natural enemies in the field and lead to a positive outcome for biological control.

          Abstract

          Natural enemies play an important role in managing insect pests. Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), a predator of many soft-body insects, is an important biological control agent in Asia. Understanding this predator’s egg-laying preferences and a habitat needs is important for its success in pest control. We investigated the plant acceptability and ovipositional preference of O. sauteri for coriander ( Coriadrum sativum L., Apiales: Apiaceae), marigold ( Tagetes erecta L., Asterales: Asteraceae), sweet alyssum ( Lobularia maritima L., Brassicales: Brassicaceae), and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L., Fabales: Fabaceae), and focused on the effects of plant physical and anatomical characteristics on the ovipositional preference of O. sauteri. The results showed that O. sauteri can lay eggs on uninfested plants in the vegetative stage and their eggs hatched normally. Orius sauteri females prefer plants with high stomatal density, a large stomatal area, and fewer trichomes as oviposition hosts, and the depth of egg placement was determined by leaf thickness. Our studies suggested that O. sauteri females can select oviposition hosts and specific oviposition sites by assessing the structural qualities of plant surface. Coriander and marigold are potentially suitable host plants for O.sauteri. The results aid the selection of cover crops to enhance natural enemies in the fields.

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          Most cited references 63

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          On optimal oviposition behavior in phytophagous insects.

           John Jaenike (1978)
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            The specificity of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in attracting herbivore enemies.

            Plants respond to herbivore attack by emitting complex mixtures of volatile compounds that attract herbivore enemies, both predators and parasitoids. Here, we explore whether these mixtures provide significant value as information cues in herbivore enemy attraction. Our survey indicates that blends of volatiles released from damaged plants are frequently specific depending on the type of herbivore and its age, abundance and feeding guild. The sensory perception of plant volatiles by herbivore enemies is also specific, according to the latest evidence from studies of insect olfaction. Thus, enemies do exploit the detailed information provided by plant volatile mixtures in searching for their prey or hosts, but this varies with the diet breadth of the enemy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Jasmonic acid is a key regulator of spider mite-induced volatile terpenoid and methyl salicylate emission in tomato.

              The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type plants, even though def-1 lacked induction of proteinase inhibitor activity. However, the hatching-rate of eggs on def-1 was significantly higher, suggesting that JA-dependent direct defenses enhanced egg mortality or increased the time needed for embryonic development. As to gene expression, def-1 had lower levels of JA-related transcripts but higher levels of salicylic acid (SA) related transcripts after 1 d of spider mite infestation. Furthermore, the indirect defense response was absent in def-1, since the five typical spider mite-induced tomato-volatiles (methyl salicylate [MeSA], 4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene [TMTT], linalool, trans-nerolidol, and trans-beta-ocimene) were not induced and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis did not discriminate between infested and uninfested def-1 tomatoes as it did with wild-type tomatoes. Similarly, the expression of the MeSA biosynthetic gene salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) was induced by spider mites in wild type but not in def-1. Exogenous application of JA to def-1 induced the accumulation of SAMT and putative geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase transcripts and restored MeSA- and TMTT-emission upon herbivory. JA is therefore necessary to induce the enzymatic conversion of SA into MeSA. We conclude that JA is essential for establishing the spider mite-induced indirect defense response in tomato.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                06 April 2021
                April 2021
                : 12
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Entomology and MOA Key Laboratory of Pest Monitoring and Green Management, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China; zhangliucau@ 123456163.com (L.Z.); zifangqin351@ 123456cau.edu.cn (Z.Q.); liudoubleping@ 123456163.com (P.L.); 15851075264@ 123456163.com (Y.Y.)
                [2 ]Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; gwf10@ 123456psu.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: wpshi@ 123456cau.edu.cn
                Article
                insects-12-00326
                10.3390/insects12040326
                8067476
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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