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      2D MXene‐Based Biosensing: A Review

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          Abstract

          MXene emerged as decent 2D material and has been exploited for numerous applications in the last decade. The remunerations of the ideal metallic conductivity, optical absorbance, mechanical stability, higher heterogeneous electron transfer rate, and good redox capability have made MXene a potential candidate for biosensing applications. The hydrophilic nature, biocompatibility, antifouling, and anti‐toxicity properties have opened avenues for MXene to perform in vitro and in vivo analysis. In this review, the concept, operating principle, detailed mechanism, and characteristic properties are comprehensively assessed and compiled along with breakthroughs in MXene fabrication and conjugation strategies for the development of unique electrochemical and optical biosensors. Further, the current challenges are summarized and suggested future aspects. This review article is believed to shed some light on the development of MXene for biosensing and will open new opportunities for the future advanced translational application of MXene bioassays.

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          Most cited references426

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          2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage

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            25th anniversary article: MXenes: a new family of two-dimensional materials.

            Recently a new, large family of two-dimensional (2D) early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides, called MXenes, was discovered. MXenes are produced by selective etching of the A element from the MAX phases, which are metallically conductive, layered solids connected by strong metallic, ionic, and covalent bonds, such as Ti2 AlC, Ti3 AlC2 , and Ta4 AlC3 . MXenes -combine the metallic conductivity of transition metal carbides with the hydrophilic nature of their hydroxyl or oxygen terminated surfaces. In essence, they behave as "conductive clays". This article reviews progress-both -experimental and theoretical-on their synthesis, structure, properties, intercalation, delamination, and potential applications. MXenes are expected to be good candidates for a host of applications. They have already shown promising performance in electrochemical energy storage systems. A detailed outlook for future research on MXenes is also presented.
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              Electromagnetic interference shielding with 2D transition metal carbides (MXenes)

              Materials with good flexibility and high conductivity that can provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding with minimal thickness are highly desirable, especially if they can be easily processed into films. Two-dimensional metal carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, combine metallic conductivity and hydrophilic surfaces. Here, we demonstrate the potential of several MXenes and their polymer composites for EMI shielding. A 45-micrometer-thick Ti3C2Tx film exhibited EMI shielding effectiveness of 92 decibels (>50 decibels for a 2.5-micrometer film), which is the highest among synthetic materials of comparable thickness produced to date. This performance originates from the excellent electrical conductivity of Ti3C2Tx films (4600 Siemens per centimeter) and multiple internal reflections from Ti3C2Tx flakes in free-standing films. The mechanical flexibility and easy coating capability offered by MXenes and their composites enable them to shield surfaces of any shape while providing high EMI shielding efficiency.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Small
                Small
                Wiley
                1613-6810
                1613-6829
                January 2023
                November 22 2022
                January 2023
                : 19
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Chemical Sciences Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan 60800 Pakistan
                [2 ] Department of Mechanical Engineering City University of Hong Kong 83 Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon Hong Kong
                Article
                10.1002/smll.202205249
                e6670bfc-da1f-456a-a5ad-cd124db2e9bb
                © 2023

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