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      Butyric Acid from Probiotic Staphylococcus epidermidis in the Skin Microbiome Down-Regulates the Ultraviolet-Induced Pro-Inflammatory IL-6 Cytokine via Short-Chain Fatty Acid Receptor

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          The glycerol fermentation of probiotic Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis) in the skin microbiome produced butyric acid in vitro at concentrations in the millimolar range. The exposure of dorsal skin of mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) light provoked a significant increased production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine. Topical application of butyric acid alone or S. epidermidis with glycerol remarkably ameliorated the UVB-induced IL-6 production. In vivo knockdown of short-chain fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) in mouse skin considerably blocked the probiotic effect of S. epidermidis on suppression of UVB-induced IL-6 production. These results demonstrate that butyric acid in the metabolites of fermenting skin probiotic bacteria mediates FFAR2 to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by UVB.

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          Most cited references 47

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          The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer

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            Commensal bacteria regulate TLR3-dependent inflammation following skin injury

            The normal microflora of the skin includes staphylococcal species that will induce inflammation when present below the dermis but are tolerated on the epidermal surface without initiating inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which a product of staphylococci inhibits skin inflammation. This inhibition is mediated by staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and acts selectively on keratinocytes triggered through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3. The significance of this is seen by observations that TLR3 activation is required for normal inflammation after injury, and that keratinocytes require TLR3 to respond to RNA from damaged cells with the release of inflammatory cytokines. Staphylococcal LTA inhibits both inflammatory cytokine release from keratinocytes and inflammation triggered by injury through a TLR2-dependent mechanism. These findings show for the first time that the skin epithelium requires TLR3 for normal inflammation after wounding and that the microflora can modulate specific cutaneous inflammatory responses.
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              Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids as modulators of immunity: what relevance for health?

              High-fiber diets have been shown to reduce plasma concentrations of inflammation markers. Increased production of fermentation-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) is one of the factors that could exert these positive effects. This review examines the effects of SCFAs on immune cells and discusses the relevance of their effects on systemic inflammation, as frequently seen in obesity. SCFAs have been shown to reduce chemotaxis and cell adhesion; this effect is dependent on type and concentration of SCFA. In spite of conflicting results, especially butyrate seems to have an anti-inflammatory effect, mediated by signaling pathways like nuclear factor-κB and inhibition of histone deacetylase. The discrepancies in the results could be explained by differences in cell types used and their proliferative and differentiation status. SCFAs show anti-inflammatory effects and seem to have the potency to prevent infiltration of immune cells from the bloodstream in, for example, the adipose tissue. In addition, their ability to inhibit the proliferation and activation of T cells and to prevent adhesion of antigen-presenting cells could be important as it recently has been shown that obesity-associated inflammation might be antigen-dependent. More studies with concentrations in micromolar range are needed to approach more physiological concentrations.

                Author and article information

                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                11 September 2019
                September 2019
                : 20
                : 18
                [1 ]Department of Life Sciences, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
                [2 ]Department of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117600, Singapore
                [4 ]Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: chunming@ 123456ncu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-3-422-7151 (ext. 36101); Fax: +886-3-425-3427
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Molecular biology

                butyric acid, microbiome, probiotic, s. epidermidis, uvb


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