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      Risk stratification for arrhythmic death in an emergency department cohort: a new method of nonlinear PD2i analysis of the ECG

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          Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects both cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden arrhythmic death (AD). Indices of HRV based on linear stochastic models are independent risk factors for AD in postmyocardial infarction (MI) cohorts. Indices based on nonlinear deterministic models have a higher sensitivity and specificity for predicting AD in retrospective data. A new nonlinear deterministic model, the automated Point Correlation Dimension (PD2i), was prospectively evaluated for prediction of AD. Patients were enrolled (N = 918) in 6 emergency departments (EDs) upon presentation with chest pain and being determined to be at risk of acute MI (AMI) >7%. Brief digital ECGs (>1000 heartbeats, ∼15 min) were recorded and automated PD2i results obtained. Out-of-hospital AD was determined by modified Hinkle-Thaler criteria. All-cause mortality at 1 year was 6.2%, with 3.5% being ADs. Of the AD fatalities, 34% were without previous history of MI or diagnosis of AMI. The PD2i prediction of AD had sensitivity = 96%, specificity = 85%, negative predictive value = 99%, and relative risk >24.2 (p ≤ 0.001). HRV analysis by the time-dependent nonlinear PD2i algorithm can accurately predict risk of AD in an ED cohort and may have both life-saving and resource-saving implications for individual risk assessment.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Baroreflex sensitivity and heart-rate variability in prediction of total cardiac mortality after myocardial infarction. ATRAMI (Autonomic Tone and Reflexes After Myocardial Infarction) Investigators.

          Experimental evidence suggests that autonomic markers such as heart-rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) may contribute to postinfarction risk stratification. There are clinical data to support this concept for heart-rate variability. The main objective of the ATRAMI study was to provide prospective data on the additional and independent prognostic value for cardiac mortality of heart-rate variability and BRS in patients after myocardial infarction in whom left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ventricular arrhythmias were known. This multicentre international prospective study enrolled 1284 patients with a recent ( 105 ms, BRS >6.1 ms per mm Hg). The association of low SDNN or BRS with LVEF below 35% carried a relative risk of 6.7 (3.1-14.6) or 8.7 (4.3-17.6), respectively, compared with patients with LVEF above 35% and less compromised SDNN (> or = 70 ms) and BRS (> or = 3 ms per mm Hg). ATRAMI provides clinical evidence that after myocardial infarction the analysis of vagal reflexes has significant prognostic value independently of LVEF and of ventricular arrhythmias and that it significantly adds to the prognostic value of heart-rate variability.
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            Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics.

            Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted. We have designed algorithms for analyzing ambulatory ECG recordings and measuring HRV without human intervention, using robust methods for obtaining time-domain measures (mean and SD of heart rate), frequency-domain measures (power in the bands of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz [VLF], 0.01 to 0.15 Hz [LF], and 0.15 to 0.5 Hz [HF] and total spectral power [TP] over all three of these bands), and measures based on nonlinear dynamics (approximate entropy [ApEn], a measure of complexity, and detrended fluctuation analysis [DFA], a measure of long-term correlations). The study population consisted of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) case patients and sex- and age-matched control subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. After exclusion of technically inadequate studies and those with atrial fibrillation, we used these algorithms to study HRV in 2-hour ambulatory ECG recordings of 69 participants (mean age, 71.7+/-8.1 years). By use of separate Cox proportional-hazards models, the conventional measures SD (P .3), were not. In multivariable models, DFA was of borderline predictive significance (P=.06) after adjustment for the diagnosis of CHF and SD. These results demonstrate that HRV analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings based on fully automated methods can have prognostic value in a population-based study and that nonlinear HRV indices may contribute prognostic value to complement traditional HRV measures.
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              Heart rate variability: a measure of cardiac autonomic tone.

              Analysis of HRV based on routine 24-hour Holter recordings provides a sensitive, noninvasive measurement of autonomic input to the heart. HRV can be measured in the time or frequency domain. Each frequency domain variable correlates at least r = 0.85 with a time domain variable. Thus time domain measures can be used as surrogates for frequency domain measures which may simplify future studies. Abnormalities of autonomic input to the heart, which are indicated by decreased indices of HRV, are associated with increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. Decreased indices of HRV are also associated with CHF, diabetes, and alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Decreased indices of HRV are an independent risk factor for mortality post MI and in patients with advanced CHF. Medications can also affect HRV, and that effect may become an important clinical consideration, especially in high-risk patients.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                August 2008
                August 2008
                : 4
                : 4
                : 689-697
                [1 ]Vicor Technologies, Inc, Boca Raton, FL, USA;
                [2 ]Max Planck Institute for Experimental Physiology, Goettingen, Germany;
                [3 ]Kimbal Medical Center, Lakewood, NJ, USA;
                [4 ]Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network, Allentown, PA, USA;
                [5 ]St. Michaels Hospital, Newark, NJ, USA;
                [6 ]William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA;
                [7 ]Luitpolb Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Norristown, PA, USA;
                [8 ]Cooper Medical Center, Camden, NJ, USA;
                [9 ]Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA;
                [10 ]Florida Arrhythmia Consultants, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA;
                [11 ]St. James Hospital, Dublin, Ireland;
                [12 ]Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: James E Skinner, Vicor Technologies, Inc., 2300 Corporate, Blvd, Ste 123, Boca Raton FL 33432, USA, Tel +1 570 897 5797, Fax +1 561 995 2449, Email jskinner@ 123456vicortech.com
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Original Research


                sudden death, non-linear, heart rate variability, ventricular arrhythmias, chaos


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