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      Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome

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          Abstract

          Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Speciation in amazonian forest birds.

           J Haffer (1969)
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            Vast underestimation of Madagascar's biodiversity evidenced by an integrative amphibian inventory.

            Amphibians are in decline worldwide. However, their patterns of diversity, especially in the tropics, are not well understood, mainly because of incomplete information on taxonomy and distribution. We assess morphological, bioacoustic, and genetic variation of Madagascar's amphibians, one of the first near-complete taxon samplings from a biodiversity hotspot. Based on DNA sequences of 2,850 specimens sampled from over 170 localities, our analyses reveal an extreme proportion of amphibian diversity, projecting an almost 2-fold increase in species numbers from the currently described 244 species to a minimum of 373 and up to 465. This diversity is widespread geographically and across most major phylogenetic lineages except in a few previously well-studied genera, and is not restricted to morphologically cryptic clades. We classify the genealogical lineages in confirmed and unconfirmed candidate species or deeply divergent conspecific lineages based on concordance of genetic divergences with other characters. This integrative approach may be widely applicable to improve estimates of organismal diversity. Our results suggest that in Madagascar the spatial pattern of amphibian richness and endemism must be revisited, and current habitat destruction may be affecting more species than previously thought, in amphibians as well as in other animal groups. This case study suggests that worldwide tropical amphibian diversity is probably underestimated at an unprecedented level and stresses the need for integrated taxonomic surveys as a basis for prioritizing conservation efforts within biodiversity hotspots.
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              The latitudinal gradient in recent speciation and extinction rates of birds and mammals.

              Although the tropics harbor greater numbers of species than do temperate zones, it is not known whether the rates of speciation and extinction also follow a latitudinal gradient. By sampling birds and mammals, we found that the distribution of the evolutionary ages of sister species-pairs of species in which each is the other's closest relative-adheres to a latitudinal gradient. The time to divergence for sister species is shorter at high latitudes and longer in the tropics. Birth-death models fitting these data estimate that the highest recent speciation and extinction rates occur at high latitudes and decline toward the tropics. These results conflict with the prevailing view that links high tropical diversity to elevated tropical speciation rates. Instead, our findings suggest that faster turnover at high latitudes contributes to the latitudinal diversity gradient.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                Proc. R. Soc. B.
                The Royal Society
                0962-8452
                1471-2954
                October 07 2014
                October 07 2014
                October 07 2014
                : 281
                : 1792
                : 20141461
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, City College of New York and the Graduate Center of CUNY, 160 Convent Avenue, Marshak Life Science Building J-526, New York, NY 10031, USA
                [2 ]Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, trav. 14, no 321, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090, Brazil
                [3 ]Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia
                [4 ]Centre for Biodiversity and Climate Change and eResearch Centre, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia
                [5 ]Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
                [6 ]Mater Natura – Instituto de Estudos Ambientais, Lamenha Lins 1080, Curitiba, Paraná 80250, Brazil
                [7 ]Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Curitiba, Paraná 81531, Brazil
                [8 ]Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Curitiba, Paraná 81531, Brazil
                [9 ]Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Curitiba, Paraná 81531, Brazil
                [10 ]Faculdade Dom Bosco, Avenida Presidente Wenceslau Braz 1172, Curitiba, Paraná 81010, Brazil
                Article
                10.1098/rspb.2014.1461
                25122231
                © 2014

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