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      Annotations for HTML to VoiceXML Transcoding: Producing Voice WebPages with Usability in Mind

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          Abstract

          Web pages contain a large variety of information, but are largely designed for use by graphical web browsers. Mobile access to web-based information often requires presenting HTML web pages using channels that are limited in their graphical capabilities such as small-screens or audio-only interfaces. Content transcoding and annotations have been explored as methods for intelligently presenting HTML documents. Much of this work has focused on transcoding for small-screen devices such as are found on PDAs and cell phones. Here, we focus on the use of annotations and transcoding for presenting HTML content through a voice user interface instantiated in VoiceXML. This transcoded voice interface is designed with an assumption that it will not be used for extended web browsing by voice, but rather to quickly gain directed access to information on web pages. We have found repeated structures that are common in the presentation of data on web pages that are well suited for voice presentation and navigation. In this paper, we describe these structures and their use in an annotation system we have implemented that produces a VoiceXML interface to information originally embedded in HTML documents. We describe the transcoding process used to translate HTML into VoiceXML, including transcoding features we have designed to lead to highly usable VoiceXML code.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          26 November 2002
          Article
          cs/0211037
          Custom metadata
          8 pages
          cs.HC

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