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      Blockade of Orai1 Store-Operated Calcium Entry Protects against Renal Fibrosis.

      Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN

      American Society of Nephrology (ASN)

      EMT, Orai1, renal fibrosis

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          Abstract

          Evidence supports an important role of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel protein 1 (Orai1)-mediated Ca2+ entry in the development of renal fibrosis, a common pathologic feature of CKDs that lead to ESRD, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We determined the role of Orai1 calcium channel in renal fibrosis induced by high-fat diet and by unilateral ureteral obstruction. Mouse kidneys with fibrosis had higher levels of Orai1 protein expression than did kidneys without fibrosis. In vivo knockdown of Orai1 with adenovirus harboring Orai1-short hairpin RNA or inhibition of Orai1 with SKF96365 dramatically prevented renal fibrosis and significantly decreased protein expression of fibronectin, α‑smooth muscle actin, and TGF‑β1 in the kidney cortex of ApoE-/- mice on a high-fat diet and in the obstructed kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Compared with kidney biopsy specimens of patients with glomerular minimal change disease, those of patients with fibrotic nephropathy had higher expression levels of Orai1. In cultured human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK2), knockdown of Orai1 Ca2+ channel with adenovirus-Orai1-short hairpin RNA markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced intracellular Ca2+ influx and phosphorylation of smad2/3. Knockdown or blockade of the Orai1 Ca2+ channel in HK2 cells also prevented epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF‑β1. In conclusion, blockade of the Orai1 Ca2+ channel prevented progression of renal fibrosis in mice, likely by suppressing smad2/3 phosphorylation and TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These results render the Orai1 Ca2+ channel a potential therapeutic target against renal fibrosis.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Transcriptional control by the TGF-beta/Smad signaling system.

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            Orai1 is an essential pore subunit of the CRAC channel.

            Stimulation of immune cells causes depletion of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores, thereby triggering sustained Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels, an essential signal for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Recent evidence indicates that activation of CRAC current is initiated by STIM proteins, which sense ER Ca2+ levels through an EF-hand located in the ER lumen and relocalize upon store depletion into puncta closely associated with the plasma membrane. We and others recently identified Drosophila Orai and human Orai1 (also called TMEM142A) as critical components of store-operated Ca2+ entry downstream of STIM. Combined overexpression of Orai and Stim in Drosophila cells, or Orai1 and STIM1 in mammalian cells, leads to a marked increase in CRAC current. However, these experiments did not establish whether Orai is an essential intracellular link between STIM and the CRAC channel, an accessory protein in the plasma membrane, or an actual pore subunit. Here we show that Orai1 is a plasma membrane protein, and that CRAC channel function is sensitive to mutation of two conserved acidic residues in the transmembrane segments. E106D and E190Q substitutions in transmembrane helices 1 and 3, respectively, diminish Ca2+ influx, increase current carried by monovalent cations, and render the channel permeable to Cs+. These changes in ion selectivity provide strong evidence that Orai1 is a pore subunit of the CRAC channel.
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              STIM1 is a Ca2+ sensor that activates CRAC channels and migrates from the Ca2+ store to the plasma membrane.

              As the sole Ca2+ entry mechanism in a variety of non-excitable cells, store-operated calcium (SOC) influx is important in Ca2+ signalling and many other cellular processes. A calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel in T lymphocytes is the best-characterized SOC influx channel and is essential to the immune response, sustained activity of CRAC channels being required for gene expression and proliferation. The molecular identity and the gating mechanism of SOC and CRAC channels have remained elusive. Previously we identified Stim and the mammalian homologue STIM1 as essential components of CRAC channel activation in Drosophila S2 cells and human T lymphocytes. Here we show that the expression of EF-hand mutants of Stim or STIM1 activates CRAC channels constitutively without changing Ca2+ store content. By immunofluorescence, EM localization and surface biotinylation we show that STIM1 migrates from endoplasmic-reticulum-like sites to the plasma membrane upon depletion of the Ca2+ store. We propose that STIM1 functions as the missing link between Ca2+ store depletion and SOC influx, serving as a Ca2+ sensor that translocates upon store depletion to the plasma membrane to activate CRAC channels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                26940090
                5042666
                10.1681/ASN.2015080889

                EMT, Orai1, renal fibrosis

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