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      Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a review on the pathogenesis, prevalence, and advance molecular identification techniques

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          Abstract

          Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, V. parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. V. parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin ( tdh)-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin ( trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the V. parahaemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

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          Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V cholerae.

          Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. V parahaemolyticus strains of a few specific serotypes, probably derived from a common clonal ancestor, have lately caused a pandemic of gastroenteritis. The organism is phylogenetically close to V cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. The whole genome sequence of a clinical V parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633 was established by shotgun sequencing. The coding sequences were identified by use of Gambler and Glimmer programs. Comparative analysis with the V cholerae genome was undertaken with MUMmer. The genome consisted of two circular chromosomes of 3288558 bp and 1877212 bp; it contained 4832 genes. Comparison of the V parahaemolyticus genome with that of V cholerae showed many rearrangements within and between the two chromosomes. Genes for the type III secretion system (TTSS) were identified in the genome of V parahaemolyticus; V cholerae does not have these genes. The TTSS is a central virulence factor of diarrhoea-causing bacteria such as shigella, salmonella, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, which cause gastroenteritis by invading or intimately interacting with intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest that V parahaemolyticus and V cholerae use distinct mechanisms to establish infection. This finding explains clinical features of V parahaemolyticus infections, which commonly include inflammatory diarrhoea and in some cases systemic manifestations such as septicaemia, distinct from those of V cholerae infections, which are generally associated with non-inflammatory diarrhoea.
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            An overview of foodborne pathogen detection: in the perspective of biosensors.

            Food safety is a global health goal and the foodborne diseases take a major crisis on health. Therefore, detection of microbial pathogens in food is the solution to the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety. For this reason, a comprehensive literature survey has been carried out aiming to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. Conventional and standard bacterial detection methods such as culture and colony counting methods, immunology-based methods and polymerase chain reaction based methods, may take up to several hours or even a few days to yield an answer. Obviously this is inadequate, and recently many researchers are focusing towards the progress of rapid methods. Although new technologies like biosensors show potential approaches, further research and development is essential before biosensors become a real and reliable choice. New bio-molecular techniques for food pathogen detection are being developed to improve the biosensor characteristics such as sensitivity and selectivity, also which is rapid, reliable, effective and suitable for in situ analysis. This paper not only offers an overview in the area of microbial pathogen detection but it also describes the conventional methods, analytical techniques and recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification and quantification, with an emphasis on biosensors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Global dissemination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O3:K6 and its serovariants.

              Vibrio parahaemolyticus is recognized as a cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, particularly in the Far East, where raw seafood consumption is high. An unusual increase in admissions of V. parahaemolyticus cases was observed at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Calcutta, a city in the northeastern part of India, beginning February 1996. Analysis of the strains revealed that a unique serotype, O3:K6, not previously isolated during the surveillance in Calcutta accounted for 50 to 80% of the infections in the following months. After this report, O3:K6 isolates identical to those isolated in Calcutta were reported from food-borne outbreaks and from sporadic cases in Bangladesh, Chile, France, Japan, Korea, Laos, Mozambique, Peru, Russia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. Other serotypes, such as O4:K68, O1:K25, and O1:KUT (untypeable), that had molecular characteristics identical to that of the O3:K6 serotype were subsequently documented. These serotypes appeared to have diverged from the O3:K6 serotype by alteration of the O:K antigens and were defined as "serovariants" of the O3:K6 isolate. O3:K6 and its serovariants have now spread into Asia, America, Africa, and Europe. This review traces the genesis, virulence features, molecular characteristics, serotype variants, environmental occurrence, and global spread of this unique clone of V. parahaemolyticus.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                11 December 2014
                2014
                : 5
                : 705
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Bandar Sunway, Malaysia
                [2] 2Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Dongsheng Zhou, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, China

                Reviewed by: Adrian Canizalez-Roman, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Mexico; Lingling Zhang, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, USA; Pendru Raghunath, Dr. VRK Women’s Medical College, India

                *Correspondence: Learn-Han Lee, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia e-mail: lee.learn.han@ 123456monash.edu ; leelearnhan@ 123456yahoo.com

                This article was submitted to Food Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2014.00705
                4263241
                25566219
                e6950bc1-6335-46f5-9da9-5d609913547f
                Copyright © 2014 Letchumanan, Chan and Lee.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 03 October 2014
                : 27 November 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 165, Pages: 13, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Review Article

                Microbiology & Virology
                vibrio parahaemolyticus,food borne,prevalence,pathogenesis,virulence factors,clinical manifestation,molecular techniques

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