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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

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      Cyclooxygenase inhibitors potentiate receptor tyrosine kinase therapies in bladder cancer cells in vitro


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          Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) are used as targeted therapies for patients diagnosed with cancer with highly expressed receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and c-Kit receptor. Resistance to targeted therapies is partially due to the activation of alternative pro-survival signaling pathways, including cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. In this study, we validated the effects of two RTKIs, axitinib and AB1010, in combination with COX inhibitors on the V-akt murine thymoma oncogene homolog 1 (Akt) and COX-2 signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells.


          The expression of several RTKs and their downstream signaling targets was analyzed by Western blot (WB) analysis in human and canine bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines. The effects of RTKIs and COX inhibitors in bladder TCC cells were assessed by MTS for cell viability, by Caspase-3/7 and Annexin V assay for apoptosis, by WB analysis for detection of COX-2 and Akt signaling pathways, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) levels.


          All tested TCC cells expressed the c-Kit and PDGFRα receptors, except human 5637 cells that had low RTKs expression. In addition, all tested cells expressed COX-1, COX-2, Akt, extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhance of activated B cells proteins, except human UM-UC-3 cells, where no COX-2 expression was detected by WB analysis. Both RTKIs inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in tested bladder TCC cells, which positively correlated with their expression levels of the PDGFRα and c-Kit receptors. RTKIs increased the expression of COX-2 in h-5637 and K9TCC#1Lillie cells. Co-treatment of indomethacin inhibited AB1010-induced COX-2 expression leading to an additive effect in inhibition of cell viability and PGE 2 production in tested TCC cells.


          Co-treatment of RTKIs with indomethacin inhibited cell viability and AB1010-induced COX-2 expression resulting in decreased PGE 2 production in tested TCC cells. Thus, COX inhibition may further potentiate RTKIs therapies in bladder cancer.

          Most cited references47

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          Inflammation and cancer: advances and new agents.

          Tumour-promoting inflammation is considered one of the enabling characteristics of cancer development. Chronic inflammatory disease increases the risk of some cancers, and strong epidemiological evidence exists that NSAIDs, particularly aspirin, are powerful chemopreventive agents. Tumour microenvironments contain many different inflammatory cells and mediators; targeting these factors in genetic, transplantable and inducible murine models of cancer substantially reduces the development, growth and spread of disease. Thus, this complex network of inflammation offers targets for prevention and treatment of malignant disease. Much potential exists in this area for novel cancer prevention and treatment strategies, although clinical research to support targeting of cancer-related inflammation and innate immunity in patients with advanced-stage cancer remains in its infancy. Following the initial successes of immunotherapies that modulate the adaptive immune system, we assert that inflammation and innate immunity are important targets in patients with cancer on the basis of extensive preclinical and epidemiological data. The adaptive immune response is heavily dependent on innate immunity, therefore, inhibiting some of the tumour-promoting immunosuppressive actions of the innate immune system might enhance the potential of immunotherapies that activate a nascent antitumour response.
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            Axitinib versus sorafenib as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma: a randomised open-label phase 3 trial.

            In previous clinical trials of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma, patients treated with axitinib as second-line therapy had longer median progression-free survival than those treated with sorafenib. We therefore undertook a phase 3 trial comparing axitinib with sorafenib in patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, patients with treatment-naive, measurable, clear-cell metastatic renal-cell carcinoma from 13 countries were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and then randomly assigned (2:1) by a centralised registration system to receive axitinib 5 mg twice daily, or sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed by masked independent review committee in the intention-to-treat population. This ongoing trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00920816. Between June 14, 2010, and April 21, 2011, we randomly assigned 192 patients to receive axitinib, and 96 patients to receive sorafenib. The cutoff date for this analysis was July 27, 2012, when 171 (59%) of 288 patients died or had disease progression, as assessed by the independent review committee. There was no significant difference in median progression-free survival between patients treated with axitinib or sorafenib (10·1 months [95% CI 7·2-12·1] vs 6·5 months [4·7-8·3], respectively; stratified hazard ratio 0·77, 95% CI 0·56-1·05). Any-grade adverse events that were more common (≥10% difference) with axitinib than with sorafenib were diarrhoea (94 [50%] of 189 patients vs 38 [40%] of 96 patients), hypertension (92 [49%] vs 28 [29%]), weight decrease (69 [37%] vs 23 [24%]), decreased appetite (54 [29%] vs 18 [19%]), dysphonia (44 [23%] vs ten [10%]), hypothyroidism (39 [21%] vs seven [7%]), and upper abdominal pain (31 [16%] vs six [6%]); those more common with sorafenib than with axitinib included palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia (PPE; 37 [39%] of 96 patients vs 50 [26%] of 189), rash (19 [20%] vs 18 [10%]), alopecia (18 [19%] vs eight [4%]), and erythema (18 [19%] vs five [3%]). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in patients treated with axitinib included hypertension (26 [14%] of 189 patients), diarrhoea (17 [9%]), asthenia (16 [8%]), weight decrease (16 [8%]), and PPE (14 [7%]); common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in patients treated with sorafenib included PPE (15 [16%] of 96 patients), diarrhoea (five [5%]), and asthenia (five [5%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 64 (34%) of 189 patients receiving axitinib, and 24 (25%) of 96 patients receiving sorafenib. Axitinib did not significantly increase progression-free survival in patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma compared with those treated with sorafenib, but did demonstrate clinical activity and an acceptable safety profile. Pfizer Inc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Phase I trial of the oral antiangiogenesis agent AG-013736 in patients with advanced solid tumors: pharmacokinetic and clinical results.

              We studied the safety, clinical activity, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of AG-013736, an oral receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial cell growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and c-Kit, in patients with advanced cancer. Patients received fixed doses of AG-013736 orally in 28-day cycles. In the first cohort, patients initially received two single test doses of AG-013736 (10 and 30 mg); subsequent dosing was determined by individual PK parameters. Doses in subsequent cohorts were assigned by using a traditional dose-escalation/de-escalation rule based on observed toxicities in the current and previous cohorts. PK analysis included evaluation of the effect of food and antacid. Thirty-six patients received AG-013736 at doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg by mouth twice daily. The dose-limiting toxicities observed included hypertension, hemoptysis, and stomatitis and were seen primarily at the higher dose levels. The observed hypertension was manageable with medication. Stomatitis was generally tolerable and managed by dose reduction or drug holidays. AG-013736 was absorbed rapidly, with peak plasma concentrations observed within 2 to 6 hours after dosing. The maximum-tolerated dose and recommended phase II dose of AG-013736 is 5 mg, twice daily, administered in the fasted state. No significant drug interaction with antacid was seen. There were three confirmed partial responses and other evidence of clinical activity. In this study, we have demonstrated clinical activity and safety of AG-013736 in patients with advanced solid tumors and identified the dose for phase II testing. The unique phase I study design allowed early identification of important absorption and metabolic issues critical to phase II testing of this agent.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                13 June 2018
                : 12
                : 1727-1742
                [1 ]Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
                [2 ]UT-ORNL Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Maria Cekanova, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive A122, Knoxville, TN 37996-4550, USA, Tel +1 865 389 5222, Fax +1 865 974 5554, Email mcekanov@ 123456utk.edu
                © 2018 Bourn and Cekanova. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                transitional cell carcinoma,axitinib,masitinib,cyclooxygenase-2,prostaglandin e2,indomethacin


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