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      Mechanism of Radix Astragali and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae Ameliorates Hypertensive Renal Damage

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          Abstract

          Hypertensive-induced renal damage (HRD) is an important public health and socioeconomic problem worldwide. The herb pair Radix Astragali- (RA-) Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RS) is a common prescribed herbal formula for the treatment of HRD. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of our study is to explore the mechanism of combination of Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RS) ameliorating HRD by regulation of the renal sympathetic nerve. Thirty 24-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as the experimental group were randomly divided into the RA group, the RS group, the RA+RS group, the valsartan group, and the SHR group and six age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) as the control group. After 4 weeks of corresponding drug administration, venipuncture was done to collect blood and prepare serum for analysis. A color Doppler ultrasound diagnostic instrument was used to observe renal hemodynamics. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), angiotensin II (Ang II), and B-type brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Simultaneously, the kidneys were removed immediately and observed under a transmission electron microscope to observe the ultrastructural changes. And the concentration of transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF- β1), angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1), and nitric oxide (NO) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that renal ultrasonography of rats showed no significant difference in renal size among groups. The RA+RS group had obviously decreased vascular resistance index. The levels of NE, E, BNP, Ang II, AT1, and TGF- β1 were decreased ( P < 0.05), and the density of NO was increased. Pathological damage of the kidney was alleviated. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested sympathetic overexpression in the pathogenesis of HRD. The combination of RA and RS may inhibit the hyperexcitability of sympathetic nerves and maintain the normal physiological structure and function of kidney tissue and has a protective effect on the cardiovascular system.

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          Most cited references34

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          2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults

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            Fate tracing reveals the pericyte and not epithelial origin of myofibroblasts in kidney fibrosis.

            Understanding the origin of myofibroblasts in kidney is of great interest because these cells are responsible for scar formation in fibrotic kidney disease. Recent studies suggest epithelial cells are an important source of myofibroblasts through a process described as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; however, confirmatory studies in vivo are lacking. To quantitatively assess the contribution of renal epithelial cells to myofibroblasts, we used Cre/Lox techniques to genetically label and fate map renal epithelia in models of kidney fibrosis. Genetically labeled primary proximal epithelial cells cultured in vitro from these mice readily induce markers of myofibroblasts after transforming growth factor beta(1) treatment. However, using either red fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase as fate markers, we found no evidence that epithelial cells migrate outside of the tubular basement membrane and differentiate into interstitial myofibroblasts in vivo. Thus, although renal epithelial cells can acquire mesenchymal markers in vitro, they do not directly contribute to interstitial myofibroblast cells in vivo. Lineage analysis shows that during nephrogenesis, FoxD1-positive((+)) mesenchymal cells give rise to adult CD73(+), platelet derived growth factor receptor beta(+), smooth muscle actin-negative interstitial pericytes, and these FoxD1-derivative interstitial cells expand and differentiate into smooth muscle actin(+) myofibroblasts during fibrosis, accounting for a large majority of myofibroblasts. These data indicate that therapeutic strategies directly targeting pericyte differentiation in vivo may productively impact fibrotic kidney disease.
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              The sympathetic nervous system alterations in human hypertension.

              Several articles have dealt with the importance and mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system alterations in experimental animal models of hypertension. This review addresses the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology and therapy of human hypertension. We first discuss the strengths and limitations of various techniques for assessing the sympathetic nervous system in humans, with a focus on heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, microneurographic recording of sympathetic nerve traffic, and measurements of radiolabeled norepinephrine spillover. We then examine the evidence supporting the importance of neuroadrenergic factors as promoters and amplifiers of human hypertension. We expand on the role of the sympathetic nervous system in 2 increasingly common forms of secondary hypertension, namely hypertension associated with obesity and with renal disease. With this background, we examine interventions of sympathetic deactivation as a mode of antihypertensive treatment. Particular emphasis is given to the background and results of recent therapeutic approaches based on carotid baroreceptor stimulation and radiofrequency ablation of the renal nerves.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2021
                21 April 2021
                : 2021
                : 5598351
                Affiliations
                1Neck-Shoulder and Lumbocrural Pain Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan 250062, China
                2Central Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250011, China
                3Rizhao Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Rizhao 276826, China
                4Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250011, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Yuzhen Xu

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2483-9260
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9025-7293
                Article
                10.1155/2021/5598351
                8084651
                33969119
                e69eab05-2d44-4743-a5d8-e6bbf80b4ab8
                Copyright © 2021 Guangjian Hou et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 16 February 2021
                : 26 March 2021
                : 8 April 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Shandong Province Medical and Health Technology Development Plan
                Award ID: 202002080788
                Funded by: Shandong First Medical University
                Award ID: 2019QL003
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81673812
                Categories
                Research Article

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