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      Evaluation of immune responses by live infectious bursal disease vaccines to avoid vaccination failures

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          Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is a viral, contagious immunosuppressive disease posing an important threat to the commercial poultry industry. Evolution of highly virulent strains of IBD virus warranted the need for detailed characterization of the immune responses offered by the currently available vaccines. Two extensively used live vaccines of varied attenuation levels — intermediate and intermediate plus — strains were analyzed for the induction of immune responses. Both the vaccines induced protective anti-body titers with the onset, quicker and higher with the intermediate plus vaccine. The intermediate plus strain vaccinate was ob-served to induce higher levels of IFN-γ in the birds. These results were supported by immunophenotype analyses with an increase in CD8 + and simultaneous decrease in CD4 + cell population. Both vaccine strains conferred protective immunity against virulent challenge. The study warrants the use of intermediate plus vaccines in disease endemic regions and intermediate vaccines in non-endemic regions to prevent IBD infection.

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          Most cited references14

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          Research on infectious bursal disease--the past, the present and the future.

          Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) is the etiological agent of "Gumboro disease". Although first observed about 40 years ago, this disease continues to pose an important threat to the commercial poultry industry. The emergence of antigenic variant as well as very virulent strains in vaccinated flocks considerably stimulated research efforts on both, IBD and IBDV. In this review, some of the recent advances in the understanding of the structure, morphogenesis and molecular biology of the virus as well as in development of new diagnostic approaches and new strategies for vaccination against IBD are briefly summarized.
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            Current status of vaccines against infectious bursal disease.

            Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the aetiological agent of the acute and highly contagious infectious bursal disease (IBD) or "Gumboro disease". IBD is one of the economically most important diseases that affects commercially produced chickens worldwide. Along with strict hygiene management of poultry farms, vaccination programmes with inactivated and live attenuated viruses have been used to prevent IBD. Live vaccines show a different degree of attenuation; many of them may cause bursal atrophy and thus immunosuppression with poor immune response to vaccination against other pathogens and an increase in vulnerability to various types of infections as possible consequences. Depending on their intrinsic characteristics or on the vaccination procedures, some of the vaccines may not induce full protection against the very virulent IBDV strains and antigenic variants observed in the last three decades. As chickens are most susceptible to IBDV in their first weeks of life, active immunity to the virus has to be induced early after hatching. However, maternally derived IBDV-specific antibodies may interfere with early vaccination with live vaccines. Thus new technologies and second-generation vaccines including rationally designed and subunit vaccines have been developed. Recently, live viral vector vaccines have been licensed in several countries and are reaching the market. Here, the current status of IBD vaccines is discussed.
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              Th1/Th2 polarization by viral and helminth infection in birds.

              Mammals developed an immune system able to functionally polarize into so-called type 1 or type 2 immune pathways, to resolve infections with intracellular and extracellular pathogens, respectively. In the well-studied avian immune system of the chicken, however, no evidence for polarized immunity could be found, as yet. To investigate whether these two major arms of mammalian immunity, regulated by a T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine balance, evolved similarly in birds, chickens were exposed to a prevalent intracellular (viral) or extracellular (helminth) infection. By using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis we provide evidence that polarization of Th1/Th2 type immunity extends beyond mammalian species, and, therefore, has been evolutionary conserved for more than 300 million years, when the lineages of mammalian and avian vertebrates are assumed to have segregated.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 June 2014
                : 4
                : 2
                : 123-127
                [ 1 ] Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Madras Veterinary College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600 007, India
                [ 2 ] Vaccine Research Centre-Viral Vaccines, Centre for Animal Health Studies, TANUVAS, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Chennai, 600 051, India
                Author notes
                Original Article

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                live vaccines,immunophenotyping,IFN-γ,infectious bursal disease


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