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      Assessment of road traffic behavior using Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire among school-going adolescents of Jaipur city, Rajasthan: An observational analysis


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          Adolescents are a relatively healthy group, but their developmental stage makes them vulnerable to many risk-taking behaviors. One such major issue is road safety practices and their risk on roads.


          To determine road safety risk behavior among school-going adolescents of Jaipur city and factors associated with it.

          Materials and Methods:

          An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2015 to February 2016. A total of 900 school-going adolescents were enrolled from eight schools of Jaipur city and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire was administered.


          Most of the participants (67.56%) were in the age group of 13–16 years. A total of 682 (75%) adolescents were driving one or other type of vehicle to commute. Out of the 682 vehicle-using adolescents, 603 (88%) had risky behavior on roads. Driving under the influence was found more among those using four-wheelers (10%) than two-wheelers (5%). Almost half of drivers used mobile phones while driving a car or two-wheeler. There was statistically significant association between risk on roads with respect to rising education and occupation of parents. A majority (88.41%) of the school-going students were found to be at risk on roads while driving. Safety-belt was not used by 28% of the students while half did not use a helmet. More than 70% of the car drivers and two-wheeler drivers drove without license.


          Majority of the adolescent drivers are at risk on roads. Driving without license and/or helmet and using mobile phone are the main risk factors.

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          Most cited references 16

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          The observed effects of teenage passengers on the risky driving behavior of teenage drivers.

          The association between teenage passengers and crash risks among young drivers may be due to risky driving behavior. We investigated the effect on two measures of risky driving in the presence of young male and female passengers. Vehicles exiting from parking lots at 10 high schools were observed and the occupants were identified by gender and age (teen or adult). At a nearby site, the speed and headway of passing traffic were recorded using video and LIDAR technology. Teenage drivers drove faster than the general traffic and allowed shorter headways, particularly in the presence of a male teenage passenger. Both male and female teenage drivers allowed shorter headways (relative to no passenger or a female passenger) in the presence of a male teenage passenger, while the presence of a female teenage passenger resulted in longer headways for male teenage drivers. Overall, the observed rate of high risk driving (defined as speed > or =15 mph or more above the posted speed limit and/or headway of < or =1.0 s) for the teen male driver/male passenger condition was about double that of general traffic. In conclusion, the presence of male teenage passengers was associated with risky driving behavior among teenage drivers.
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            The situational risks of young drivers: The influence of passengers, time of day and day of week on accident rates

            This paper provides new insight into the situational risks of young drivers, especially in terms of the passenger effect. Two 1988 data bases from the Ontario Ministry of Transportation were used to estimate accident involvement rates by number of passengers, time of day and day of the week--first individually and then for all two-way combinations with the passenger variable. Accident data were derived from police reports for all accidents involving a fatality, personal injury or property damage exceeding $700. Estimates of exposure were based on the most up-to-date provincial travel survey available at the time of the study. Results indicate that the accident involvement rates of 16-19 year old drivers are higher than those of 20-24 and 25-59 year olds in all situations that were examined, but that they were disproportionately high on weekends, at nighttime and with passengers. The results of the passenger variable are particularly interesting because, unlike weekends and nighttime, the negative effect of passengers on overall accident rates was evident only for 16-19 year old drivers. This effect was quite pronounced for both sexes, with accident involvement rates being approximately twice as high with passengers as without. For 16-19 year olds, accident rates were also significantly higher for two or more passengers versus one passenger. The highest rates for this age group occurred with passengers at nighttime. Possible explanations for these patterns and policy implications are discussed.
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              Teenage drivers: patterns of risk.

              To determine patterns of risk among teenage drivers. Review and synthesis of the literature. On most measures, crash rates during the teenage years are higher than at any other age, for both males and females. Risk among teenagers varies greatly by driving situation; it is particularly low in some situations (e.g., the learner period) and particularly high in others (e.g., right after licensure, late at night, with passengers present). In some of these high-risk driving situations, risk is elevated for drivers of all ages (e.g., late night driving), in others risk is elevated more for teens than adults (e.g., driving after consuming alcohol), and in others the risk is unique to teen drivers (e.g., having passengers). These varying patterns of risk form the basis for graduated licensing systems, which are designed to promote low-risk and discourage high-risk driving.

                Author and article information

                J Family Med Prim Care
                J Family Med Prim Care
                Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                November 2019
                15 November 2019
                : 8
                : 11
                : 3595-3599
                [1 ] Department of Community Medicine, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
                [2 ] Department of Orthopaedics, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
                [3 ] Department of Community Medicine, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
                [4 ] Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: ajeetsinghbhadoria@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © 2019 Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Original Article

                adolescent, mobile use, road safety, yrbs questionnaire


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