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      Alien ectomycorrhizal plants differ in their ability to interact with co-introduced and native ectomycorrhizal fungi in novel sites

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          Alien plants represent a potential threat to environment and society. Understanding the process of alien plants naturalization is therefore of primary importance. In alien plants, successful establishment can be constrained by the absence of suitable fungal partners. Here, we used 42 independent datasets of ectomycorrhizal fungal (EcMF) communities associated with alien Pinaceae and Eucalyptus spp., as the most commonly introduced tree species worldwide, to explore the strategies these plant groups utilize to establish symbioses with EcMF in the areas of introduction. We have also determined the differences in composition of EcMF communities associated with alien ectomycorrhizal plants in different regions. While alien Pinaceae introduced to new regions rely upon association with co-introduced EcMF, alien Eucalyptus often form novel interactions with EcMF species native to the region where the plant was introduced. The region of origin primarily determines species composition of EcMF communities associated with alien Pinaceae in new areas, which may largely affect invasion potential of the alien plants. Our study shows that alien ectomycorrhizal plants largely differ in their ability to interact with co-introduced and native ectomycorrhizal fungi in sites of introduction, which may potentially affect their invasive potential.

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          A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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            Navigating the multiple meanings of β diversity: a roadmap for the practicing ecologist.

            A recent increase in studies of β diversity has yielded a confusing array of concepts, measures and methods. Here, we provide a roadmap of the most widely used and ecologically relevant approaches for analysis through a series of mission statements. We distinguish two types of β diversity: directional turnover along a gradient vs. non-directional variation. Different measures emphasize different properties of ecological data. Such properties include the degree of emphasis on presence/absence vs. relative abundance information and the inclusion vs. exclusion of joint absences. Judicious use of multiple measures in concert can uncover the underlying nature of patterns in β diversity for a given dataset. A case study of Indonesian coral assemblages shows the utility of a multi-faceted approach. We advocate careful consideration of relevant questions, matched by appropriate analyses. The rigorous application of null models will also help to reveal potential processes driving observed patterns in β diversity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
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              Mycorrhizas and nutrient cycling in ecosystems - a journey towards relevance?


                Author and article information

                ISME J
                ISME J
                The ISME Journal
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                4 June 2020
                September 2020
                : 14
                : 9
                : 2336-2346
                [1 ]GRID grid.418800.5, ISNI 0000 0004 0555 4846, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, ; Vídeňská 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
                [2 ]GRID grid.424923.a, ISNI 0000 0001 2035 1455, Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, ; Zámek 1, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic
                [3 ]GRID grid.4491.8, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 116X, Faculty of Science, , Charles University, ; Viničná 7, CZ-128 44 Prague, Czech Republic
                [4 ]GRID grid.10939.32, ISNI 0000 0001 0943 7661, Natural History Museum, University of Tartu, ; 14a Ravila, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
                [5 ]GRID grid.56302.32, ISNI 0000 0004 1773 5396, Department of Biology, , King Saud University, ; Riyadh, 11451 Saudi Arabia
                [6 ]GRID grid.11956.3a, ISNI 0000 0001 2214 904X, Department of Botany and Zoology, , Stellenbosch University, ; Matieland, 7602 South Africa
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to International Society for Microbial Ecology 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Funded by: Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic (DG16P02M041), Czech Science Foundation (18-26191S and 19-28807X)
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                © International Society of Microbial Ecology 2020

                Microbiology & Virology

                fungal ecology, plant ecology, biogeography


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