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      Determinants of Endothelial Function in a Cohort of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

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          Abstract

          Objectives: Endothelial dysfunction assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) has been associated with cardiovascular events. There have been relatively few studies examining FMD or other measures of endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to examine determinants of FMD in a homogenous cohort of patients with PAD. Methods: We prospectively assessed patients presenting with life style-limiting intermittent claudication to establish the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fasting serum was assayed for lipids, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, leptin, resistin and osteoprotegerin (OPG). FMD was measured by high-resolution ultrasound. Results: Serum concentrations of OPG were elevated in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. FMD was impaired in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome and negatively correlated with serum concentrations of OPG. By multiple regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was independently associated with impaired FMD after adjustment for age, smoking, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and severity of PAD. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome is an important determinant of endothelial function in patients with PAD, and OPG may be a useful biomarker of this effect.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery

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            Serum osteoprotegerin levels are associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease.

            Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secretory glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. OPG-deficient mice develop severe osteoporosis and medial arterial calcification of the aorta and renal arteries. OPG immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the normal blood vessels and in early atherosclerotic lesions. A recent clinical study suggests that there is a significant correlation between elevated serum OPG levels and cardiovascular mortality. We examined whether serum OPG levels are associated with the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum OPG levels were examined in 201 patients who underwent coronary angiography because of stable chest pain. The number of diseased vessels was used to represent the severity of CAD. Serum OPG levels were measured by ELISA and were significantly greater in patients with significant stenosis of the coronary arteries than in those without stenosis. As the severity of CAD increased, there was a significant increase in serum OPG levels. Serum OPG levels were 0.94+/-0.34, 1.04+/-0.38, 1.19+/-0.38, and 1.44+/-0.54 ng/mL (medians 0.91, 0.99, 1.09, and 1.37) for the subjects with normal coronary arteries or luminal irregularities, 1-vessel disease, 2-vessel disease, and 3-vessel disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that serum OPG levels were significantly associated with the presence of CAD [odds ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 16.0]. Our data show that serum OPG levels are associated with the presence and severity of CAD, suggesting that OPG may be involved in the progression of CAD.
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              Biomarkers of atherosclerotic plaque instability and rupture.

              Basic research over the last two decades has identified a large number of molecules pertinent to the atherosclerotic process, which have clearly improved our understanding of the underlying pathology. It is now well established that inflammation represents a major feature which is present in the vessel wall throughout all stages of the disease until the final pathophysiologic steps, representing plaque destabilization and eventually plaque rupture. Several cells typical for the atherosclerotic plaque, like monocyte-derived macrophages and T-lymphocytes are able to produce and secrete such mediator molecules, like cytokines, chemokines, growth-factors, enzymes, and disintegrins, which lead to activation of endothelial cells, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, lesion progression, and finally to the weakening of a vulnerable plaque by matrix degradation of its fibrous cap. Today, many of these molecules involved can be measured systemically by sensitive assays, and elevated concentrations in the circulation have been shown to be associated with future cardiovascular events. Determination of several of these molecules carries important prognostic information, independent of traditional risk factors, and may turn out to be useful in improving risk stratification. However, for most of these biomarkers the clinical utility has not yet been established.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                July 2008
                01 February 2008
                : 111
                : 1
                : 51-56
                Affiliations
                aVascular Biology Unit and bInstitute of Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, and cTownsville Hospital, Townsville, Australia
                Article
                113428 Cardiology 2008;111:51–56
                10.1159/000113428
                18239393
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 30, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

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