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      The influence of chronological age on cognitive biases and impulsivity levels in male patients with gambling disorder


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          Background and aims

          Due to the contribution of age to the etiology of gambling disorder (GD), there is a need to assess the moderator effect of the aging process with other features that are highly related with the clinical profile. The objective of this study is to examine the role of the chronological age into the relationships between cognitive biases, impulsivity levels and gambling preference with the GD profile during adulthood.


          Sample included n = 209 patients aged 18–77 years-old recruited from a Pathological Gambling Outpatients Unit. Orthogonal contrasts explored polynomial patterns in data, and path analysis implemented through structural equation modeling assessed the underlying mechanisms between the study variables.


          Compared to middle-age patients, younger and older age groups reported more impairing irrational beliefs ( P = 0.005 for interpretative control and P = 0.043 for interpretative bias). A linear trend showed that as people get older sensation seeking ( P = 0.006) and inability to stop gambling ( P = 0.018) increase. Path analysis showed a direct effect between the cognitive bias and measures of gambling severity (standardized effects [SE] between 0.12 and 0.17) and a direct effect between impulsivity levels and cumulated debts due to gambling (SE = 0.22).


          Screening tools and intervention plans should consider the aging process. Specific programs should be developed for younger and older age groups, since these are highly vulnerable to the consequences of gambling activities and impairment levels of impulsivity and cognitive biases.

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          Most cited references107

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            This chapter presents a review of applications of structural equation modeling (SEM) published in psychological research journals in recent years. We focus first on the variety of research designs and substantive issues to which SEM can be applied productively. We then discuss a number of methodological problems and issues of concern that characterize some of this literature. Although it is clear that SEM is a powerful tool that is being used to great benefit in psychological research, it is also clear that the applied SEM literature is characterized by some chronic problems and that this literature can be considerably improved by greater attention to these issues.
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              The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity


                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                June 2020
                22 June 2020
                : 9
                : 2
                : 383-400
                [1 ] CIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn) , Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
                [2 ] deptDepartment of Psychobiology and Methodology , Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ] deptDepartment of Psychiatry , University Hospital of Bellvitge-IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain
                [4 ] deptDepartment of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences , University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [5 ] deptDepartment of Public Health, Mental Health and Perinatal Nursing , School of Nursing, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [6 ] CIBER Salud Mental (CIBERSam), Instituto de Salud Carlos III , Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. deptDepartment of Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital , c/ Feixa Llarga s/n, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, 08907, Spain. Tel.: +34 93 260 79 88; fax: +34 93 260 76 58. E-mail: sjimenez@ 123456bellvitgehospital.cat
                Author information
                © 2020 The Author(s)

                Open Access statement. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 06 November 2019
                : 16 February 2020
                : 03 April 2020
                : 04 April 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 03, Tables: 03, References: 107, Pages: 18
                Funded by: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
                Award ID: PSI2015-68701-R
                Funded by: Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas
                Award ID: 2017I067
                Award ID: 2019I47
                Funded by: Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII)
                Award ID: FIS PI14/00290
                Award ID: PI17/01167
                Funded by: FEDER funds/European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
                Funded by: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte
                Award ID: FPU16/02087
                Award ID: FPU16/01453
                Full-length Report

                Medicine,Psychology,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                path analysis,older age,younger age,cognitive biases,gambling disorder,impulsivity


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