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      Effect of Bacterial Endotoxin on in vivo Pulsatile Gonadotropin Secretion in Adult Male Rats

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          Abstract

          Immune system disorders are often accompanied by alterations in the reproductive axis. The bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or LPS) has central inflammatory effects, and activates cytokine release (immune system mediatory factors) in the hypothalamus, where the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons are located. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LPS on the pulsatile release of LH and FSH in adult male rats. With this aim, orchidectomized male rats were implanted with an atrial catheter and received, after two basal blood collections, LPS (250 µg/kg i.v.) or saline. Subsequently, blood samples were taken at regular intervals during 110 min. As expected, LH release was markedly reduced following exposure to LPS. In order to quantify these effects objectively, we subjected these data to PC-pulsar analysis. Pulsatile LH release was clearly disrupted in LPS-treated animals as compared to control rats: pulse frequency 1.3 ± 0.3 versus 0.43 ± 0.2/110 min, p < 0.05; pulse amplitude 17.18 ± 2.2 versus 8.33 ± 0.66 ng/ml, p < 0.05; overall mean release 15.2 ± 0.75 versus 7.08 ± 1.11 ng/ml, p < 0.001; maximum values 27.5 ± 3.08 versus 9.95 ± 2.16 ng/ml, p < 0.001; baseline levels 13.83 ± 0.77 versus 6.55 ± 0.74 ng/ml, p < 0.001. Regarding FSH secretion, LPS administration significantly lowered baseline levels (p < 0.05) and overall mean release (p < 0.01); FSH pulsatility parameters showed no significant differences. These observations indicate that LPS decreases LH and FSH mean release rates and baseline levels and inhibits several pulsatility parameters of LH release (frequency, amplitude and maximum values); FSH pulsatility parameters are not altered by LPS administration. We speculate that this effect is exerted principally at the hypothalamic level by modifying GnRH secretion.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Immunoreactive interleukin-1β localization in the rat forebrain

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            Interleukin-1 beta inhibits the endogenous expression of the early gene c-fos located within the nucleus of LH-RH neurons and interferes with hypothalamic LH-RH release during proestrus in the rat.

            The ability of central interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) administration to modulate the hypothalamic LH-RH release as well as the endogenous expression of the c-fos protein located within the nucleus of LH-RH neurons was examined during the afternoon of proestrus in rats. In a first series of experiments, 50 or 100 ng IL-1 beta were infused into the lateral ventricle of the rat brain at either 08.30, 12.00, 14.30, or 17.00 h of proestrus. The animals were then perfused transcardially with a solution of 4% paraformaldehyde from 17.30 and 18.00 h. In a second series of experiments, the rats were equipped with an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula in the lateral ventricle and a push-pull cannula into the median eminence (ME), and LH-RH secretion was measured during the afternoon of proestrus. The third experiment investigated the putative role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in modulating the inhibitory effect of IL-1 beta on LH secretion by infusing CRF antagonists before the i.c.v. administration of the cytokine to gonadectomized male and female rats. The central infusion of 50 or 100 ng IL-1 beta at 12.00 h completely blocked the spontaneous expression of c-fos protein which normally occurs in the nucleus of LH-RH neurons between 17.30 and 18.00 h on proestrus. In contrast, 50 ng IL-1 beta was less effective (P < 0.05) when administered at 08.30 h, and totally without effect when infused at 14.30 h. Infusion of 50 ng IL-1 beta also markedly suppressed the hypothalamic release of LH-RH in proestrus rats bearing a push-pull cannula into the ME, and significantly decreased plasma LH levels in both gonadectomized male and female rats. Finally, we observed that the central administration of CRF antagonists did not modify the inhibitory effects of the cytokine on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. These results provide the first direct evidence that IL-1 beta is a potent inhibitor of LH-RH neuronal activity during the proestrus LH surge in intact cycling rats. As central administration of this cytokine completely inhibited the endogenous expression of c-fos protein within the nucleus of LH-RH neurons, our findings also suggest that IL-1 beta acts at the level of LH-RH perikarya.
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              Localization of type I interleukin-1 receptor mRNA in the rat brain

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                1998
                March 1998
                11 April 1998
                : 67
                : 3
                : 275-281
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Article
                54323 Neuroendocrinology 1998;67:275–281
                10.1159/000054323
                9588697
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 35, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Neuroimmune Interactions

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