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      Impact of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Use on In-Hospital Mortality in Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients with Hypertension


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          This study aimed to explore the association of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) use with in-hospital mortality among Chinese patients with hypertension hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).


          This study was conducted from January 2014 to January 2017, and data from patients with hypertension hospitalized with CAP were analyzed retrospectively. Multivariable logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to investigate any association.


          1,510 patients were included in this study. The crude in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients with ARBs use (4.2% vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). In the extended multivariable logistic models, the odds ratios (ORs) of ARBs use were consistently significant in all six models (OR range 0.27–0.48, p < 0.05 for all). After subgroup analysis, ARBs use remained a potentially protective factor against in-hospital mortality, and no interaction was detected. After PSM, the in-hospital mortality remained significantly lower in the ARBs use group (4.2% vs. 10.9%, p = 0.002). In the univariate analysis, using ARBs was associated with in-hospital mortality (PSM OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.19–0.68; p = 0.002). Additionally, compared with the control group, ARBs use did not significantly increase the risk of acute kidney injury (12.4% vs. 10.9%, p = 0.628), renal replacement therapy (0.6% vs. 0.3%, p = 1.000), and hyperkalemia (1.8% vs. 2.1%, p = 1.000).


          Although residual confounding cannot be excluded, the use of ARBs was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in Chinese patients with hypertension hospitalized with CAP.

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          Balance diagnostics for comparing the distribution of baseline covariates between treatment groups in propensity-score matched samples

          The propensity score is a subject's probability of treatment, conditional on observed baseline covariates. Conditional on the true propensity score, treated and untreated subjects have similar distributions of observed baseline covariates. Propensity-score matching is a popular method of using the propensity score in the medical literature. Using this approach, matched sets of treated and untreated subjects with similar values of the propensity score are formed. Inferences about treatment effect made using propensity-score matching are valid only if, in the matched sample, treated and untreated subjects have similar distributions of measured baseline covariates. In this paper we discuss the following methods for assessing whether the propensity score model has been correctly specified: comparing means and prevalences of baseline characteristics using standardized differences; ratios comparing the variance of continuous covariates between treated and untreated subjects; comparison of higher order moments and interactions; five-number summaries; and graphical methods such as quantile–quantile plots, side-by-side boxplots, and non-parametric density plots for comparing the distribution of baseline covariates between treatment groups. We describe methods to determine the sampling distribution of the standardized difference when the true standardized difference is equal to zero, thereby allowing one to determine the range of standardized differences that are plausible with the propensity score model having been correctly specified. We highlight the limitations of some previously used methods for assessing the adequacy of the specification of the propensity-score model. In particular, methods based on comparing the distribution of the estimated propensity score between treated and untreated subjects are uninformative. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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            Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of acute kidney injury: a KDIGO summary (Part 1)

            Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious problem affecting millions and causing death and disability for many. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes completed the first ever, international, multidisciplinary, clinical practice guideline for AKI. The guideline is based on evidence review and appraisal, and covers AKI definition, risk assessment, evaluation, prevention, and treatment. In this review we summarize key aspects of the guideline including definition and staging of AKI, as well as evaluation and nondialytic management. Contrast-induced AKI and management of renal replacement therapy will be addressed in a separate review. Treatment recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed and a detailed rationale for each recommendation is provided.
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              Systemic arterial hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fewer than half of those with hypertension are aware of their condition, and many others are aware but not treated or inadequately treated, although successful treatment of hypertension reduces the global burden of disease and mortality. The aetiology of hypertension involves the complex interplay of environmental and pathophysiological factors that affect multiple systems, as well as genetic predisposition. The evaluation of patients with hypertension includes accurate standardized blood pressure (BP) measurement, assessment of the patients' predicted risk of atherosclerotic CVD and evidence of target-organ damage, and detection of secondary causes of hypertension and presence of comorbidities (such as CVD and kidney disease). Lifestyle changes, including dietary modifications and increased physical activity, are effective in lowering BP and preventing hypertension and its CVD sequelae. Pharmacological therapy is very effective in lowering BP and in preventing CVD outcomes in most patients; first-line antihypertensive medications include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers and thiazide diuretics.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Dis (Basel)
                Kidney Dis (Basel)
                Kidney Diseases
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland )
                14 June 2023
                October 2023
                : 9
                : 5
                : 424-432
                [a ]Department of Nephrology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
                [b ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dawei Chen, chendawei@ 123456njmu.edu.cn Xin Wan, wanxin@ 123456njmu.edu.cn
                © 2023 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/Services/OpenAccessLicense). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

                : 24 October 2022
                : 5 June 2023
                : 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 32, Pages: 9
                This study was supported by grants from the Xinghuo Talent Program of Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Health Science and Technology Development Special Fund Project (Grant No. YKK21129), and the Six-one Project of Top Talents in Jiangsu Province (Grant No. LGY2020014).
                Research Article

                angiotensin receptor blockers,mortality,community-acquired pneumonia,hypertension


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