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      The Struggle to Govern the Commons

      1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2 , 3
      Science
      American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Human institutions—ways of organizing activities—affect the resilience of the environment. Locally evolved institutional arrangements governed by stable communities and buffered from outside forces have sustained resources successfully for centuries, although they often fail when rapid change occurs. Ideal conditions for governance are increasingly rare. Critical problems, such as transboundary pollution, tropical deforestation, and climate change, are at larger scales and involve nonlocal influences. Promising strategies for addressing these problems include dialogue among interested parties, officials, and scientists; complex, redundant, and layered institutions; a mix of institutional types; and designs that facilitate experimentation, learning, and change.

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          Most cited references39

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          The tragedy of the commons.

          (1968)
          The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality.
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            Social capital and the collective management of resources.

            J. Pretty (2003)
            The proposition that natural resources need protection from the destructive actions of people is widely accepted. Yet communities have shown in the past and increasingly today that they can collaborate for long-term resource management. The term social capital captures the idea that social bonds and norms are critical for sustainability. Where social capital is high in formalized groups, people have the confidence to invest in collective activities, knowing that others will do so too. Some 0.4 to 0.5 million groups have been established since the early 1990s for watershed, forest, irrigation, pest, wildlife, fishery, and microfinance management. These offer a route to sustainable management and governance of common resources.
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              A Contingent Resource-Based View of Proactive Corporate Environmental Strategy

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                December 12 2003
                December 12 2003
                : 302
                : 5652
                : 1907-1912
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Environmental Science and Policy Program and Departments of Sociology and Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
                [2 ]Center for the Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change and Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408, USA.
                [3 ]Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences and Education, The National Academies, Washington, DC 20001, USA.
                Article
                10.1126/science.1091015
                14671286
                e6df96bf-f10a-4068-a5e4-a97c62055959
                © 2003
                History

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