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      International Journal of COPD (submit here)

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      Effect of SGRQ-Defined Chronic Bronchitis at Baseline on Treatment Outcomes in Patients with COPD Receiving Nebulized Glycopyrrolate


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          Chronic bronchitis (CB) is one of the conditions that contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite its widespread prevalence among patients with COPD and overall negative impact on treatment outcomes, the effect of CB on the efficacy of bronchodilator therapy has not been evaluated. The objective of this post hoc analysis is to assess the effect of nebulized glycopyrrolate (GLY) on lung function and health-related quality of life outcomes in patients with St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)-defined CB at baseline.


          Pooled data from the replicate, 12-week GOLDEN 3 and 4 studies (N=861) were grouped by CB status at baseline. The endpoints reported are changes from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1), SGRQ and EXAcerbations of Chronic Pulmonary Disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms (EXACT-RS) scores. Safety of GLY was evaluated by monitoring the incidence of adverse events (AEs).


          Following 12 weeks of treatment, GLY 25 μg twice-daily (BID) resulted in placebo-adjusted improvements from baseline in FEV 1 of 77.1 mL and 124.4 mL in the CB and non-CB groups, respectively (p<0.0001 vs placebo in both groups). Significant improvements in SGRQ total scores were observed with GLY 25 μg BID compared with placebo, regardless of baseline CB status. Although EXACT-RS improvements were noted in both CB and non-CB groups, significant improvements were observed only in the CB group. GLY 25 μg BID was generally well tolerated through 12 weeks of treatment, with a low incidence of AEs.


          Treatment with nebulized GLY 25 μg BID for 12 weeks resulted in significant improvements in lung function and SGRQ total scores, compared with placebo. Significant improvements in EXACT-RS total scores were observed only in the CB group. Together, these results support the use of GLY 25 μg BID in patients with COPD, regardless of their CB status.

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          Most cited references25

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          Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Chronic bronchitis (CB) is a common but variable phenomenon in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It has numerous clinical consequences, including an accelerated decline in lung function, greater risk of the development of airflow obstruction in smokers, a predisposition to lower respiratory tract infection, higher exacerbation frequency, and worse overall mortality. CB is caused by overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus by goblet cells, which leads to worsening airflow obstruction by luminal obstruction of small airways, epithelial remodeling, and alteration of airway surface tension predisposing to collapse. Despite its clinical sequelae, little is known about the pathophysiology of CB and goblet cell hyperplasia in COPD, and treatment options are limited. In addition, it is becoming increasingly apparent that in the classic COPD spectrum, with emphysema on one end and CB on the other, most patients lie somewhere in the middle. It is known now that many patients with severe emphysema can develop CB, and small airway pathology has been linked to worse clinical outcomes, such as increased mortality and lesser improvement in lung function after lung volume reduction surgery. However, in recent years, a greater understanding of the importance of CB as a phenotype to identify patients with a beneficial response to therapy has been described. Herein we review the epidemiology of CB, the evidence behind its clinical consequences, the current understanding of the pathophysiology of goblet cell hyperplasia in COPD, and current therapies for CB.
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            Characterisation of COPD heterogeneity in the ECLIPSE cohort

            Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. This study describes the heterogeneity of COPD in a large and well characterised and controlled COPD cohort (ECLIPSE). Methods We studied 2164 clinically stable COPD patients, 337 smokers with normal lung function and 245 never smokers. In these individuals, we measured clinical parameters, nutritional status, spirometry, exercise tolerance, and amount of emphysema by computed tomography. Results COPD patients were slightly older than controls and had more pack years of smoking than smokers with normal lung function. Co-morbidities were more prevalent in COPD patients than in controls, and occurred to the same extent irrespective of the GOLD stage. The severity of airflow limitation in COPD patients was poorly related to the degree of breathlessness, health status, presence of co-morbidity, exercise capacity and number of exacerbations reported in the year before the study. The distribution of these variables within each GOLD stage was wide. Even in subjects with severe airflow obstruction, a substantial proportion did not report symptoms, exacerbations or exercise limitation. The amount of emphysema increased with GOLD severity. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was low (4%) but also increased with GOLD stage. Some gender differences were also identified. Conclusions The clinical manifestations of COPD are highly variable and the degree of airflow limitation does not capture the heterogeneity of the disease.
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              Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second over time in COPD.

              A key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an accelerated rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), but data on the variability and determinants of this change in patients who have established disease are scarce. We analyzed the changes in FEV(1) after administration of a bronchodilator over a 3-year period in 2163 patients. A random-coefficient model was used to evaluate possible predictors of both FEV(1) levels and their changes over time. The mean (±SE) rate of change in FEV(1) was a decline of 33±2 ml per year, with significant variation among the patients studied. The between-patient standard deviation for the rate of decline was 59 ml per year. Over the 3-year study period, 38% of patients had an estimated decline in FEV(1) of more than 40 ml per year, 31% had a decline of 21 to 40 ml per year, 23% had a change in FEV(1) that ranged from a decrease of 20 ml per year to an increase of 20 ml per year, and 8% had an increase of more than 20 ml per year. The mean rate of decline in FEV(1) was 21±4 ml per year greater in current smokers than in current nonsmokers, 13±4 ml per year greater in patients with emphysema than in those without emphysema, and 17±4 ml per year greater in patients with bronchodilator reversibility than in those without reversibility. The rate of change in FEV(1) among patients with COPD is highly variable, with increased rates of decline among current smokers, patients with bronchodilator reversibility, and patients with emphysema.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                12 April 2021
                : 16
                : 945-955
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Health Sciences , Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [2 ]Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc ., Marlborough, MA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Donald P Tashkin Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Health Sciences , Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USATel +1 310-825-3163 Email dtashkin@mednet.ucla.edu
                © 2021 Tashkin et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 28, Pages: 11
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine
                chronic bronchitis,copd,lama,nebulized glycopyrrolate
                Respiratory medicine
                chronic bronchitis, copd, lama, nebulized glycopyrrolate


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