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Gelatinases and their inhibitors in tumor metastasis: from biological research to medical applications.

Histology and histopathology

11813883

Animals, physiology, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2, pathology, drug therapy, Neoplasm Metastasis, metabolism, Metalloendopeptidases, Humans, antagonists & inhibitors, Gelatinases, pharmacology, Enzyme Inhibitors, Enzyme Activation

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      Abstract

      The involvement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs)-2 and -9, also known as gelatinases, in cancer cell migration and invasion has been well documented, although it is not yet clear how they facilitate metastasis formation in the course of malignancies. The idea that gelatinases are responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and breakdown of basement membrane (BM) tissue boundaries has turned out not to be entirely correct. An action by remodelling the ECM components of the BM exposing new cryptic sites, or releasing growth factors, cytokines, or active ECM proteolysed fragments seems to be nearer to the truth. On the other hand, tissue inhibitors of gelatinase activity (TIMP-2), are involved both in the MMP-2 activation process; in concert with membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP), and in the inhibition of gelatinolytic activity. Therefore proteolysis, the central step for cancer metastasis, should occur as a result of an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2. Many studies have reported the importance of this balance in patients with different malignancies, and considerable effort is currently being spent on the study of molecules that can shift the balance in favour of inhibition of MMP proteolytic activity. In this review we focus on the role of gelatinase activity in cancer invasion, addressing the following issues: how and where proteolysis occurs in cancer tissues, how it can be regulated, what the clinical implications are of the studies reported in literature so far, and finally what the future developments in this field that could have an impact on the management of patients affected by malignancies may be.

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