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      A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Tropical Africa

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      PhytoKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          A revision of the 45 species of the pantropical genus Xylopiain Tropical Africa includes descriptions of six new species and a new section of the genus. The fruits and seeds of Xylopiashow specializations that promote vertebrate dispersal, primarily by hornbills and monkeys. Over half of the African species have an Area of Occupancy (AOO) less than 80 km 2, suggesting that they are in need of protection. African species are classified into five sections. Section Neoxylopia , with four species, is centered in the Guineo-Congolian Region and includes X.globosa sp. nov.Section Ancistropetala, with three species, occurs in the same region. Both of these sections are endemic to Africa. Section Xylopia, which extends to Madagascar and the American tropics, has only a single species in Africa, X.aethiopica. The three species of section Verdcourtia sect. nov.are restricted to the East African coast and Madagascar. The largest number of African species, (34) belong to section Stenoxylopia, in which the seeds lack the arils found in the other sections and instead have a fleshy sarcotesta. Section Stenoxylopia is divided into two informal groups, one centered in eastern and southern Africa ( X.odoratissimagroup) and the other centered in the wetter forests of western and central Africa ( X.acutifloragroup). Five new species are described in section Stenoxylopia: Xylopianilotica sp. nov.from Sudan, South Sudan, and Uganda, Xylopiacalva sp. nov.from Nigeria and Cameroon, which is allied to X.phloiodora, and Xylopiamonticola sp. nov.from Nigeria and Cameroon, X.piratae sp. nov.from Ivory Coast and Ghana, and X.unguiculata sp. nov.from Gabon. The latter three species are segregates of the former Xylopiaacutifloras. l. One new combination is made at the species level, X.shirensis comb. nov.Keys, descriptions, illustrations, distribution maps, and an index to numbered collections document diversity and assist with species identification. The name UnonaoliverianaBaill. was found to pre-date the name UnonalepidotaOliv., requiring the combination Meiocarpidiumoliverianum comb. nov.

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          Most cited references 80

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          Fruit characters as a basis of fruit choice and seed dispersal in a tropical forest vertebrate community.

          Interactions between a large community of vertebrate frugivore-granivores (including 7 species of large canopy birds, 19 species of rodents, 7 species of ruminants, and 6 species of monkeys), and 122 fruit species they consume, were studied for a year in a tropical rainforest in Gabon.The results show how morphological characters of fruits are involved in the choice and partitioning of the available fruit spectrum among consumer taxa. Despite an outstanding lack of specificity between fruit and consumer species, consideration of simple morphological traits of fruits reveals broad character syndromes associated with different consumer taxa. Competition between distantly related taxa that feed at the same height is far more important than has been previously supposed. The results also suggest how fruit characters could have evolved under consumer pressure as a result of consumer roles as dispersers or seed predators. Our analyses of dispersal syndromes show that fruit species partitioning occurs more between mammal taxa than between mammals and birds. There is thus a bird-monkey syndrome and a ruminant-rodent-elephant syndrome. The bird-monkey syndrome includes fruit species on which there is no pre-dispersal seed predation. These fruits (berries and drupes) are brightly colored, have a succulent pulp or arillate seeds, and no protective seed cover. The ruminant-rodent-elephant syndrome includes species for which there is pre-dispersal predation. These fruits (all drupes) are large, dull-colored, and have a dry fibrous flesh and well-protected seeds.
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            The partitioning of Africa: statistically defined biogeographical regions in sub-Saharan Africa

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              Distribution and ecology of vascular plants in a tropical rain forest

               J B Hall,  M. Swaine (1981)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2003
                1314-2011
                April 24 2018
                April 24 2018
                : 97
                : 1-252
                Article
                10.3897/phytokeys.97.20975
                © 2018

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