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Antidepressant drug interactions and the cytochrome P450 system. The role of cytochrome P450 2D6.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics

Animals, Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic, pharmacokinetics, Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, physiology, Dextromethorphan, metabolism, Drug Interactions, Humans, Mixed Function Oxygenases, antagonists & inhibitors, pharmacology, Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors

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      Abstract

      The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and venlafaxine display the following rank order of in vitro potency against the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme CYP2D6 as measured by their inhibition sparteine and/or dextromethorphan metabolism: paroxetine > fluoxetine identical to norfluoxetine > or = sertraline > or = fluvoxamine > venlafaxine. On this basis, paroxetine would appear to have the greatest and fluvoxamine and venlafaxine the least potential for drug interactions with CYP2D6-dependent drugs. In vivo, inhibitory potency is affected by the plasma concentration of the free (unbound) drug, a potentially important consideration since many CYP2D6-metabolised drugs exhibit nonlinear (saturable) kinetics, and by the presence of metabolites, which might accumulate and interact with the CYP system. Under steady-state conditions, paroxetine and fluoxetine are approximately clinically equipotent inhibitors of CYP2D6 in vivo (as determined through their effects on desipramine metabolism); sertraline, in contrast, shows lower steady-state plasma concentrations than fluoxetine and, hence, a less pronounced inhibition of CYP2D6. Of the drugs that are metabolised by CYP2D6, secondary amine tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics (e.g. phenothiazines, and risperidone), codeine, some antiarrhythmics (e.g. flecainide) and beta-blockers form the focus of clinical attention with regard to their potential interactions with the SSRIs. Coadministration of desipramine and fluoxetine (20 mg/day) at steady-state produced an approximately 4-fold elevation in peak plasma desipramine concentrations, while the long half-life of the active metabolite norfluoxetine was responsible for a significant and long lasting (approximately 3 weeks) elevation of plasma desipramine concentrations after discontinuation of fluoxetine. Similarly, coadministration of desipramine with paroxetine produced an approximately 3-fold increase in plasma desipramine concentration. In contrast, coadministration of desipramine and sertraline (50 mg/day) for 4 weeks resulted in a considerably more modest (approximately 30%) elevation in plasma desipramine concentrations. Coadministration of fluoxetine (60 mg/day, as a loading dose) [equivalent to serum concentrations obtained with 20 mg/day at steady-state] with imipramine or desipramine resulted in approximately 3- to 4-fold increases in plasma area under the curve (AUC) values for both imipramine and desipramine (illustrating a significant drug interaction potential at multiple isoenzymes). Consistent with its minimal in vitro effect on CYP2D6, fluvoxamine shows minimal in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction with desipramine, but does interact with imipramine (approximately 3- to 4-fold increase in AUC) through inhibition of CYP3A3/4, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Thus, the extent of the in vivo interaction between the SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants mirrors to a large extent their in vitro inhibitory potencies against CYP2D6 and other isoenzyme systems, especially if one takes into account pharmacokinetic factors.

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