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      Richness and taxonomic distinctness of cave invertebrates from the northeastern state of Goiás, central Brazil: a vulnerable and singular area

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      Subterranean Biology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The karst area of the northeastern state of Goiás comprises two main municipalities: São Domingos and Posse. São Domingos is inside the limits of a Full Protection Conservation Unit known as Parque Estadual de Terra Ronca (PETeR), where a high number of caves occurs, some of them surpassing 10 km in length. Despite their protection by law, uncontrolled tourism has been threatening the integrity of the unique and fragile cave systems of São Domingos. On the other hand, the caves of Posse are much less visited, with its subterranean fauna poorly unknown and are strongly threatened by the urban areas and mining activities in the vicinity. We conducted six systematic surveys of invertebrates in 12 caves, seven of which are located in São Domingos and five in Posse, between 2010 and 2012. Immediately outside the caves, we sampled several microhabitats for comparison. We estimated richness, abundance, and taxonomic distinctness of the communities. We recorded 1,941 individuals of 344 morphospecies. Caves from São Domingos showed a higher species richness and were more taxonomic distinct than caves from Posse. Most morphospecies were considered troglophiles (188). We also found one trogloxene and one troglobite, as well as nine troglomorphic taxa that possibly are troglobitic as well. Both regions have markedly singular caves regarding its subterranean fauna, with high values of taxonomic distinctness. However, the richer caves were not necessarily the most taxonomic distinct. Conservation measures are especially necessary in the region of Posse, where caves are not legally protected and are within an area of significant urbanization. Cave entrances of Posse are near deforested vicinities, in some cases with domestic wastes and cement plants nearby.

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          Most cited references 29

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          New 'biodiversity' measures reveal a decrease in taxonomic distinctness with increasing stress

           RM Warwick,  KR Clarke (1995)
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            Dark diversity: shedding light on absent species.

            Ecological theory and nature conservation have traditionally relied solely on observed local diversity. In this review, we recommend including those species that are absent from an ecosystem but which belong to its species pool; that is, all species in the region that can potentially inhabit those particular ecological conditions. We call the set of absent species 'dark diversity'. Relating local and dark diversities enables biodiversity comparisons between regions, ecosystems and taxonomic groups, and the evaluation of the roles of local and regional processes in ecological communities. Dark diversity can also be used to counteract biodiversity loss and to estimate the restoration potential of ecosystems. We illustrate the dark diversity concept by globally mapping plant dark diversity and the local:dark diversity ratio. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Environment and Development. Brazil's environmental leadership at risk.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Subterranean Biology
                SB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2615
                1768-1448
                January 03 2019
                January 03 2019
                : 29
                : 1-33
                Article
                10.3897/subtbiol.29.30418
                © 2019

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