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      Caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) is an enzyme in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis.

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          Abstract

          Lignin is a major component of plant secondary cell walls. Here we describe caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE) as an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana cse mutants deposit less lignin than do wild-type plants, and the remaining lignin is enriched in p-hydroxyphenyl units. Phenolic metabolite profiling identified accumulation of the lignin pathway intermediate caffeoyl shikimate in cse mutants as compared to caffeoyl shikimate levels in the wild type, suggesting caffeoyl shikimate as a substrate for CSE. Accordingly, recombinant CSE hydrolyzed caffeoyl shikimate into caffeate. Associated with the changes in lignin, the conversion of cellulose to glucose in cse mutants increased up to fourfold as compared to that in the wild type upon saccharification without pretreatment. Collectively, these data necessitate the revision of currently accepted models of the lignin biosynthetic pathway.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Protein structure prediction on the Web: a case study using the Phyre server.

          Determining the structure and function of a novel protein is a cornerstone of many aspects of modern biology. Over the past decades, a number of computational tools for structure prediction have been developed. It is critical that the biological community is aware of such tools and is able to interpret their results in an informed way. This protocol provides a guide to interpreting the output of structure prediction servers in general and one such tool in particular, the protein homology/analogy recognition engine (Phyre). New profile-profile matching algorithms have improved structure prediction considerably in recent years. Although the performance of Phyre is typical of many structure prediction systems using such algorithms, all these systems can reliably detect up to twice as many remote homologies as standard sequence-profile searching. Phyre is widely used by the biological community, with >150 submissions per day, and provides a simple interface to results. Phyre takes 30 min to predict the structure of a 250-residue protein.
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            Genome-wide insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana.

            Over 225,000 independent Agrobacterium transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion events in the genome of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been created that represent near saturation of the gene space. The precise locations were determined for more than 88,000 T-DNA insertions, which resulted in the identification of mutations in more than 21,700 of the approximately 29,454 predicted Arabidopsis genes. Genome-wide analysis of the distribution of integration events revealed the existence of a large integration site bias at both the chromosome and gene levels. Insertion mutations were identified in genes that are regulated in response to the plant hormone ethylene.
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              Secondary-structure matching (SSM), a new tool for fast protein structure alignment in three dimensions.

              The present paper describes the SSM algorithm of protein structure comparison in three dimensions, which includes an original procedure of matching graphs built on the protein's secondary-structure elements, followed by an iterative three-dimensional alignment of protein backbone Calpha atoms. The SSM results are compared with those obtained from other protein comparison servers, and the advantages and disadvantages of different scores that are used for structure recognition are discussed. A new score, balancing the r.m.s.d. and alignment length Nalign, is proposed. It is found that different servers agree reasonably well on the new score, while showing considerable differences in r.m.s.d. and Nalign.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB (Flanders Institute for Biotechnology), Technologiepark 927, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.
                Journal
                Science
                Science (New York, N.Y.)
                1095-9203
                0036-8075
                Sep 6 2013
                : 341
                : 6150
                science.1241602
                10.1126/science.1241602
                23950498

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