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      Phylogeny of the subfamilies of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera)

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          A combined morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the subfamily relationships of the parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera). Data were obtained by coding 135 morphological and 6 biological characters for 131 exemplar species of ichneumonids and 3 species of Braconidae (the latter as outgroups). The species of ichneumonids represent all of the 42 currently recognized subfamilies. In addition, molecular sequence data (cytochrome oxidase I “DNA barcoding” region, the D2 region of 28S rDNA and part of the F2 copy of elongation factor 1-alpha) were obtained from specimens of the same species that were coded for morphology (1309 base pairs total). The data were analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses. The parsimony analysis using all data recovered previously recognized informal subfamily groupings (Pimpliformes, Ophioniformes, Ichneumoniformes), although the relationships of these three groups to each other differed from previous studies and some of the subfamily relationships within these groupings had not previously been suggested. Specifically, Ophioniformes was the sister group to (Ichneumoniformes + Pimplformes), and Labeninae was placed near Ichneumoniformes, not as sister group to all Ichneumonidae except Xoridinae. The parsimony analysis using only morphological characters was poorly resolved and did not recover any of the three informal subfamily groupings and very few of the relationships were similar to the total-evidence parsimony analysis. The molecular-only parsimony analysis and both Bayesian analyses (total-evidence and molecular-only) recovered Pimpliformes, a restricted Ichneumoniformes grouping and many of the subfamily groupings recovered in the total-evidence parsimony analysis. A comparison and discussion of the results obtained by each phylogenetic method and different data sets is provided. It is concluded that the molecular characters produced results that were relatively consistent with traditional, non-phylogenetic concepts of relationships between the ichneumonid subfamilies, whereas the morphological characters did not (at least not by themselves). The inclusion of both molecular and morphological characters using parsimony produced a topology that was the closest to the traditional subfamily relationships. The method of analysis did not greatly affect the overall topology for the molecular-only analyses, but there were differences between Bayesian and parsimony results for the total-evidence analyses (especially near the root of the tree). The Bayesian results did not seem to be altered very much by the inclusion of morphological characters, unlike in the parsimony analysis. In summary, the following groups were supported in multiple analyses regardless of the characters used or method of tree-building: Pimpliformes, higher Ophioniformes, higher Pimpliformes, (Claseinae + Pedunculinae), (Banchinae + Stilbopinae), Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Diplazontinae, Ichneumoninae (including Alomya), Labeninae, Ophioninae, Poemeniinae, Rhyssinae, and Tersilochinae sensu stricto. Conversely, Ctenopelmatinae and Tryphoninae were never recovered without inclusion of other taxa. Based on the hypothesis of relationships obtained by the total-evidence parsimony analysis, the following formal taxonomic changes are proposed: Alomyinae Förster (= Alomya Panzer and Megalomya Uchida) is once again synonymized with Ichneumoninae and is now considered a tribe (Alomyini rev. stat.); and Notostilbops Townes is transferred from Stilbopinae to Banchinae, tribe Atrophini.

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          MrBayes bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models

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            A Total-Evidence Approach to Dating with Fossils, Applied to the Early Radiation of the Hymenoptera

            Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.]
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              GenBank

              GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 370 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or the NCBI Submission Portal. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to policies regarding sequence identifiers, an improved 16S submission wizard, targeted loci studies, the ability to submit methylation and BioNano mapping files, and a database of anti-microbial resistance genes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                August 30 2019
                August 30 2019
                : 71
                : 1-156
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.71.32375
                © 2019

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