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      Tramadol use in a patient with Brugada syndrome and morphine allergy: a case report

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          Abstract

          Brugada syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by arrhythmias and sudden death, particularly in younger individuals. A mutation in a gene encoding the human cardiac sodium channels is responsible for this syndrome. In the literature, there are several case reports of Brugada syndrome in association with the use of several anesthetic agents. Herein, we present our anesthetic practice and the use of tramadol in a 75-year-old female patient who underwent pulmonary lobectomy under general anesthesia and was diagnosed with Brugada syndrome.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Brugada syndrome 2012.

          Brugada syndrome (BS) is a cardiac disorder characterized by typical ECG alterations, and it is associated with a high risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), affecting young subjects with structurally normal hearts. The prevalence of this disorder is still uncertain, presenting marked geographical differences. The syndrome has a genetic basis, and several mutations have been identified in genes encoding subunits of cardiac sodium, potassium, and calcium channels, as well as in genes involved in the trafficking or regulation of these channels. Most BS patients are asymptomatic, but those who develop symptoms present with syncope and/or SCD secondary to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation. Risk stratification is still challenging, especially in cases of asymptomatic BS patients. This is a brief review of recent advances in our understanding of the genetic and molecular bases of BS, arrhythmogenic mechanisms and clinical course, as well as an update of the tools for risk stratification and treatment of the condition.
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            Tramadol, fentanyl and sufentanil but not morphine block voltage-operated sodium channels.

            Lidocaine-like sodium channel blocking drugs provide pain relief either by interrupting impulse conduction in neurons when applied locally in high concentrations or, when given systemically, by suppressing high-frequency ectopic discharges due to preferential drug binding to inactivated channel states. Lidocaine-like actions of opioids have frequently been demonstrated clinically. However, drug binding to resting and inactivated channel conformations has been studied systematically only in the case of meperidine. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of four currently used opioids on heterologously expressed neuronal (NaV(1.2)) voltage-gated sodium channels. Block of sodium currents was studied at hyperpolarized holding potentials and at depolarized potentials inducing either fast- or slow-inactivation. Sufentanil, fentanyl and tramadol but not morphine reversibly suppressed sodium inward currents at high concentrations (half-maximum blocking concentrations (IC50) 49+/-4, 141+/-6 and 103+/-8 microM) when depolarizations were started from hyperpolarized holding potentials. Short depolarizations inducing fast-inactivation and long prepulses inducing slow-inactivation significantly (*p < or = 0.001) increased the blocking potency for these opioids. 15% slow inactivated channels reduced the respective IC50 values to 5+/-3, 12+/-2 and 21+/-2 microM. These results show that: (1) Sufentanil, fentanyl and tramadol block voltage-gated sodium channels with half-maximum inhibitory concentrations similar to the IC50 reported for meperidine. (2) Slow inactivation--a physiological mechanism to suppress ectopic activity in response to slow shifts in membrane potential--increases binding affinity for sufentanil, fentanyl and tramadol. (3) Morphine has no such effects.
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              Tramadol, but not its major metabolite (mono-O-demethyl tramadol) depresses compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves.

              Although tramadol is known to exhibit a local anaesthetic effect, how tramadol exerts this effect is not understood fully. The effects of tramadol and its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1) on compound action potentials (CAPs) were examined by applying the air-gap method to frog sciatic nerves, and the results were compared with those of other local anaesthetics, lidocaine and ropivacaine. Tramadol reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=2.3 mM). On the other hand, M1 (1-2 mM), which exhibits a higher affinity for mu-opioid receptors than tramadol, did not affect CAPs. These effects of tramadol were resistant to the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, did not affect CAPs. This tramadol action was not affected by a combination of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Lidocaine and ropivacaine also concentration-dependently reduced CAP peak amplitudes with IC50 values of 0.74 and 0.34 mM, respectively. These results indicate that tramadol reduces the peak amplitude of CAP in peripheral nerve fibres with a potency which is less than those of lidocaine and ropivacaine, whereas M1 has much less effect on CAPs. This action of tramadol was not produced by activation of mu-opioid receptors nor by inhibition of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake. It is suggested that the methyl group present in tramadol but not in M1 may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                12 January 2018
                : 11
                : 191-194
                Affiliations
                Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Izmir, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cengiz Sahutoglu, Ege Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Anesteziyoloji ve Reanimasyon AD, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey, Tel +90 232 390 2143, Fax +90 232 339 7687, Email csahutoglu@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                jpr-11-191
                10.2147/JPR.S150905
                5769782
                © 2018 Sahutoglu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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