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      The Relationship between Trait Impulsivity and Everyday Executive Functions among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Mediating Effect of Negative Emotions


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          In recent years, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has dramatically increased, imposing a heavy financial burden on society and individuals. The most cost-effective way to control diabetes is diabetes self-management, which depends on patients' executive functions (EFs). However, the level of EFs among patients with T2DM varies greatly. In addition to diabetes-related factors contributing to a decline in EFs, trait impulsivity as a relatively stable personality trait may explicate individual differences in EFs. The objective of this study was to verify the mediating effect of negative emotions on the relationship between trait impulsivity and EFs among patients with T2DM in China.


          A total of 305 patients with T2DM were enrolled consecutively from the endocrinology departments of three tertiary hospitals in China using convenience sampling. The participants completed the Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Brief (BIS-Brief), Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales with 21 items (DASS-21), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A) version. A structural equation modeling was used to verify the mediating effect of negative emotions on the relationship between trait impulsivity and EFs.


          A total of 32.46% of the participants experienced at least one aspect of daily EF decline. The mediating effect of trait impulsivity on the Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) of EFs through negative emotions was significant, accounting for 29.57% of the total effect. The mediating effect of trait impulsivity on the Metacognitive Index (MI) of EFs through negative emotions was significant, accounting for 31.67% of the total effect.


          Trait impulsivity can positively predict EF decline, which can be alleviated by improving the negative emotions of patients with T2DM. Future research exploring interventions to improve the EFs of patients with T2DM should therefore consider their trait impulsivity and negative emotions.

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          Global aetiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications

          Globally, the number of people with diabetes mellitus has quadrupled in the past three decades, and diabetes mellitus is the ninth major cause of death. About 1 in 11 adults worldwide now have diabetes mellitus, 90% of whom have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Asia is a major area of the rapidly emerging T2DM global epidemic, with China and India the top two epicentres. Although genetic predisposition partly determines individual susceptibility to T2DM, an unhealthy diet and a sedentary lifestyle are important drivers of the current global epidemic; early developmental factors (such as intrauterine exposures) also have a role in susceptibility to T2DM later in life. Many cases of T2DM could be prevented with lifestyle changes, including maintaining a healthy body weight, consuming a healthy diet, staying physically active, not smoking and drinking alcohol in moderation. Most patients with T2DM have at least one complication, and cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. This Review provides an updated view of the global epidemiology of T2DM, as well as dietary, lifestyle and other risk factors for T2DM and its complications.
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            Factor structure of the barratt impulsiveness scale

            The purpose of the present study was to revise the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 10 (BIS-10), identify the factor structure of the items among normals, and compare their scores on the revised form (BIS-11) with psychiatric inpatients and prison inmates. The scale was administered to 412 college undergraduates, 248 psychiatric inpatients, and 73 male prison inmates. Exploratory principal components analysis of the items identified six primary factors and three second-order factors. The three second-order factors were labeled Attentional Impulsiveness, Motor Impulsiveness, and Nonplanning Impulsiveness. Two of the three second-order factors identified in the BIS-11 were consistent with those proposed by Barratt (1985), but no cognitive impulsiveness component was identified per se. The results of the present study suggest that the total score of the BIS-11 is an internally consistent measure of impulsiveness and has potential clinical utility for measuring impulsiveness among selected patient and inmate populations.
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              A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects.

              A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.

                Author and article information

                J Diabetes Res
                J Diabetes Res
                Journal of Diabetes Research
                22 August 2023
                : 2023
                : 5224654
                1Department of Nursing, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China
                2Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China
                3Department of Endocrinology, The Second Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China
                4Department of Military Medical Psychology, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Irene Kretchy

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Na Liu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 7 November 2022
                : 29 June 2023
                : 28 July 2023
                Funded by: Youth Training Program in Military Medical Science and Technology
                Award ID: 21QNPY071
                Funded by: Natural Science Basic Research Program of Shaanxi Province
                Award ID: 2022JQ-174
                Research Article


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