21
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia is a unique disease that requires a different approach

      , , , ,
      Blood
      American Society of Hematology

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in children is relatively rare. Because of a lack of robust clinical study evidence, management of CML in children is not standardized and often follows guidelines developed for adults. Children and young adults tend to have a more aggressive clinical presentation than older adults, and prognostic scores for adult CML do not apply to children. CML in children has been considered to have the same biology as in adults, but recent data indicate that some genetic differences exist in pediatric and adult CML. Because children with CML may receive tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for many decades, and are exposed to TKIs during a period of active growth, morbidities in children with CML may be distinct from those in adults and require careful monitoring. Aggressive strategies, such as eradication of CML stem cells with limited duration and intensive regimens of chemotherapy and TKIs, may be more advantageous in children as a way to avoid lifelong exposure to TKIs and their associated adverse effects. Blood and marrow transplantation in pediatric CML is currently indicated only for recurrent progressive disease, and the acute and long-term toxicities of this option should be carefully evaluated against the complications associated with lifelong use of TKIs.

          Related collections

          Most cited references84

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          European LeukemiaNet recommendations for the management of chronic myeloid leukemia: 2013.

          Advances in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, particularly regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mandate regular updating of concepts and management. A European LeukemiaNet expert panel reviewed prior and new studies to update recommendations made in 2009. We recommend as initial treatment imatinib, nilotinib, or dasatinib. Response is assessed with standardized real quantitative polymerase chain reaction and/or cytogenetics at 3, 6, and 12 months. BCR-ABL1 transcript levels ≤10% at 3 months, 10% at 6 months and >1% from 12 months onward define failure, mandating a change in treatment. Similarly, partial cytogenetic response (PCyR) at 3 months and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) from 6 months onward define optimal response, whereas no CyR (Philadelphia chromosome-positive [Ph+] >95%) at 3 months, less than PCyR at 6 months, and less than CCyR from 12 months onward define failure. Between optimal and failure, there is an intermediate warning zone requiring more frequent monitoring. Similar definitions are provided for response to second-line therapy. Specific recommendations are made for patients in the accelerated and blastic phases, and for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Optimal responders should continue therapy indefinitely, with careful surveillance, or they can be enrolled in controlled studies of treatment discontinuation once a deeper molecular response is achieved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Discontinuation of imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who have maintained complete molecular remission for at least 2 years: the prospective, multicentre Stop Imatinib (STIM) trial.

            Imatinib treatment significantly improves survival in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), but little is known about whether treatment can safely be discontinued in the long term. We aimed to assess whether imatinib can be discontinued without occurrence of molecular relapse in patients in complete molecular remission (CMR) while on imatinib. In our prospective, multicentre, non-randomised Stop Imatinib (STIM) study, imatinib treatment (of >2 years duration) was discontinued in patients with CML who were aged 18 years and older and in CMR (>5-log reduction in BCR-ABL and ABL levels and undetectable transcripts on quantitative RT-PCR). Patients who had undergone immunomodulatory treatment (apart from interferon α), treatment for other malignancies, or allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation were not included. Patients were enrolled at 19 participating institutions in France. In this interim analysis, rate of relapse was assessed by use of RT-PCR for patients with at least 12 months of follow-up. Imatinib was reintroduced in patients who had molecular relapse. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00478985. 100 patients were enrolled between July 9, 2007, and Dec 17, 2009. Median follow-up was 17 months (range 1-30), and 69 patients had at least 12 months follow-up (median 24 months, range 13-30). 42 (61%) of these 69 patients relapsed (40 before 6 months, one patient at month 7, and one at month 19). At 12 months, the probability of persistent CMR for these 69 patients was 41% (95% CI 29-52). All patients who relapsed responded to reintroduction of imatinib: 16 of the 42 patients who relapsed showed decreases in their BCR-ABL levels, and 26 achieved CMR that was sustained after imatinib rechallenge. Imatinib can be safely discontinued in patients with a CMR of at least 2 years duration. Imatinib discontinuation in this setting yields promising results for molecular relapse-free survival, raising the possibility that, at least in some patients, CML might be cured with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Activity of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in the blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the Philadelphia chromosome.

              BCR-ABL, a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase, is the product of the Philadelphia chromosome. This enzyme is present in virtually all cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) throughout the course of the disease, and in 20 percent of cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). On the basis of the substantial activity of the inhibitor in patients in the chronic phase, we evaluated STI571 (formerly known as CGP 57148B), a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, in patients who had CML in blast crisis and in patients with ALL who had the Ph chromosome. In this dose-escalating pilot study, 58 patients were treated with STI571; 38 patients had a myeloid blast crisis and 20 had ALL or a lymphoid blast crisis. Treatment was given orally at daily doses ranging from 300 to 1000 mg. Responses occurred in 21 of 38 patients (55 percent) with a myeloid-blast-crisis phenotype; 4 of these 21 patients had a complete hematologic response. Of 20 patients with a lymphoid blast crisis or ALL, 14 (70 percent) had a response, including 4 who had complete responses. Seven patients with a myeloid blast crisis continue to receive treatment and remain in remission from 101 to 349 days after starting the treatment. All but one patient with a lymphoid blast crisis or ALL has relapsed. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, vomiting, edema, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 is well tolerated and has substantial activity in the blast crises of CML and in Ph-positive ALL.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Blood
                Blood
                American Society of Hematology
                0006-4971
                1528-0020
                January 28 2016
                January 28 2016
                October 28 2015
                January 28 2016
                : 127
                : 4
                : 392-399
                Article
                10.1182/blood-2015-06-648667
                4915793
                26511135
                e71e8814-2fe2-41d7-8718-1c9e5baea8bc
                © 2016

                Comments

                Comment on this article