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Invirtiendo en salud: el argumento económico. Informe del Foro sobre Inversión en Salud de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Innovación para la Salud 2016 Translated title: Investing in health: the economic case. Report of the WISH Investing in Health Forum 2016

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      Abstract

      Resumen: Los gobiernos de los países en desarrollo y los organismos de ayuda internacional enfrentan decisiones difíciles en cuanto a la mejor manera de asignar sus recursos limitados. Las inversiones en distintos sectores -incluyendo educación, agua y saneamiento, transporte y salud- pueden generar beneficios sociales y económicos. Este informe se enfoca específicamente en el sector salud. Presenta evidencia contundente sobre el valor de ampliar las inversiones en salud. El argumento económico para incrementar estas inversiones en salud nunca ha sido más sólido. Con el progreso que se ha logrado en la reducción de la mortalidad materna e infantil y de las muertes por enfermedades infecciosas, es esencial que los responsables de la formulación de políticas no se vuelvan complacientes. Estos logros se revertirán rápidamente sin inversiones sostenidas en salud. Será necesario ampliar las inversiones para hacer frente a la carga generada por las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) emergentes y para alcanzar la cobertura universal de salud (CUS). El valor de la inversión en salud va mucho más allá de su rendimiento reflejado en la prosperidad económica a través del producto interno bruto (PIB). Las personas dan un gran valor monetario a los años de vida adicionales que las inversiones en salud pueden proporcionar -un valor inherente a permanecer con vida por más tiempo, que no tiene que ver con la productividad. Los encargados del diseño de políticas deben esforzarse más para asegurar que el gasto en salud refleje las prioridades de la gente. Para asegurar que los servicios sean accesibles para todos, la función del gobierno en el financiamiento de la salud es muy clara. Sin financiamiento público, habrá quienes no podrán costear los servicios que requieren y se verán forzados a elegir la enfermedad -o incluso la muerte- y la ruina económica, una elección devastadora que ya está llevando a 150 millones de personas a la pobreza cada año. En países de bajos ingresos (PBI) y países de ingresos medios (PIM), el financiamiento público debería ser utilizado para alcanzar la cobertura universal con un paquete de intervenciones altamente costo-efectivas (mejores inversiones u opciones). Los gobiernos que no protejan la salud y el patrimonio de su pueblo de esta manera serán incapaces de obtener los beneficios de una prosperidad económica y un crecimiento a largo plazo. El financiamiento público tiene el beneficio de ser más eficiente y capaz de controlar los costos que el financiamiento privado, y es la única manera sostenible de lograr una CUS. Además, la gente atribuye un alto valor económico a la protección que le provee el financiamiento público contra los riesgos financieros. Este informe aborda tres preguntas clave: 1) ¿Cuál es el fundamento económico para invertir en salud?; 2) ¿cuál es la mejor manera de financiar la salud?, y 3) ¿cuáles son las intervenciones que deben tener prioridad?

      Translated abstract

      Abstract: Developing country governments and aid agencies face difficult decisions on how best to allocate their finite resources. Investments in many different sectors -including education, water and sanitation, transportation, and health- can all reap social and economic benefits. This report focuses specifically on the health sector. It presents compelling evidence of the value of scaling-up health investments. The economic case for increasing these investments in health has never been stronger. Having made progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, and deaths from infectious diseases, it is essential that policymakers do not become complacent. These gains will be quickly reversed without sustained health investments. Scaled-up investments will be needed to tackle the emerging non-communicable disease (NCD) burden and to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). The value of investment in health far beyond its performance is reflected in economic prosperity through gross domestic product (GDP). People put a high monetary value on the additional years of life that health investments can bring -an inherent value to being alive for longer, unrelated to productivity. Policymakers need to do more to ensure that spending on health reflects people’s priorities. To make sure services are accessible to all, governments have a clear role to play in financing health. Without public financing, there will be some who cannot afford the care they need, and they will be forced to choose sickness -perhaps even death- and financial ruin; a devastating choice that already pushes 150 million people into poverty every year. In low-income countries (LICs) and middle-income countries (MICs), public financing should be used to achieve universal coverage with a package of highly cost-effective interventions (‘best buys’). Governments failing to protect the health and wealth of their people in this way will be unable to reap the benefits of long-term economic prosperity and growth. Public financing has the benefit of being more efficient and better at controlling costs than private financing and is the only sustainable way to reach UHC. In addition, people put a high economic value on the protection against financial risk that public financing provides. This report addresses three key questions: 1) What is the economic rationale for investing in health?; 2) what is the best way to finance health?, and 3) which interventions should be prioritized?

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      Most cited references 153

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      Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital

      Summary In this paper we review the associations between maternal and child undernutrition with human capital and risk of adult diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from five long-standing prospective cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa and noted that indices of maternal and child undernutrition (maternal height, birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, and weight, height, and body-mass index at 2 years according to the new WHO growth standards) were related to adult outcomes (height, schooling, income or assets, offspring birthweight, body-mass index, glucose concentrations, blood pressure). We undertook systematic reviews of studies from low-income and middle-income countries for these outcomes and for indicators related to blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, lung and immune function, cancers, osteoporosis, and mental illness. Undernutrition was strongly associated, both in the review of published work and in new analyses, with shorter adult height, less schooling, reduced economic productivity, and—for women—lower offspring birthweight. Associations with adult disease indicators were not so clear-cut. Increased size at birth and in childhood were positively associated with adult body-mass index and to a lesser extent with blood pressure values, but not with blood glucose concentrations. In our new analyses and in published work, lower birthweight and undernutrition in childhood were risk factors for high glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and harmful lipid profiles once adult body-mass index and height were adjusted for, suggesting that rapid postnatal weight gain—especially after infancy—is linked to these conditions. The review of published works indicates that there is insufficient information about long-term changes in immune function, blood lipids, or osteoporosis indicators. Birthweight is positively associated with lung function and with the incidence of some cancers, and undernutrition could be associated with mental illness. We noted that height-for-age at 2 years was the best predictor of human capital and that undernutrition is associated with lower human capital. We conclude that damage suffered in early life leads to permanent impairment, and might also affect future generations. Its prevention will probably bring about important health, educational, and economic benefits. Chronic diseases are especially common in undernourished children who experience rapid weight gain after infancy.
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        Early appraisal of China's huge and complex health-care reforms.

        China's 3 year, CN¥850 billion (US$125 billion) reform plan, launched in 2009, marked the first phase towards achieving comprehensive universal health coverage by 2020. The government's undertaking of systemic reform and its affirmation of its role in financing health care together with priorities for prevention, primary care, and redistribution of finance and human resources to poor regions are positive developments. Accomplishing nearly universal insurance coverage in such a short time is commendable. However, transformation of money and insurance coverage into cost-effective services is difficult when delivery of health care is hindered by waste, inefficiencies, poor quality of services, and scarcity and maldistribution of the qualified workforce. China must reform its incentive structures for providers, improve governance of public hospitals, and institute a stronger regulatory system, but these changes have been slowed by opposition from stakeholders and lack of implementation capacity. The pace of reform should be moderated to allow service providers to develop absorptive capacity. Independent, outcome-based monitoring and evaluation by a third-party are essential for mid-course correction of the plans and to make officials and providers accountable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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          Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development.

          Inequality between and within populations has origins in adverse early experiences. Developmental neuroscience shows how early biological and psychosocial experiences affect brain development. We previously identified inadequate cognitive stimulation, stunting, iodine deficiency, and iron-deficiency anaemia as key risks that prevent millions of young children from attaining their developmental potential. Recent research emphasises the importance of these risks, strengthens the evidence for other risk factors including intrauterine growth restriction, malaria, lead exposure, HIV infection, maternal depression, institutionalisation, and exposure to societal violence, and identifies protective factors such as breastfeeding and maternal education. Evidence on risks resulting from prenatal maternal nutrition, maternal stress, and families affected with HIV is emerging. Interventions are urgently needed to reduce children's risk exposure and to promote development in affected children. Our goal is to provide information to help the setting of priorities for early child development programmes and policies to benefit the world's poorest children and reduce persistent inequalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            orgnameUniversity of California orgdiv1Global Health Sciences United States
            orgnameImperial College London orgdiv1Institute of Global Health Innovation United Kingdom
            Durham North Carolina orgnameDuke University orgdiv1Duke Global Health Institute United States
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            spm
            Salud Pública de México
            Salud pública Méx
            Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico )
            0036-3634
            June 2017
            : 59
            : 3
            : 321-342
            S0036-36342017000300321
            10.21149/8675

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 155, Pages: 22
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            Product Information: SciELO Public Health

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