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      Treatment of Crohn’s disease with colony-stimulating factors: An overview

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          Abstract

          Current treatments for Crohn’s disease are aimed at suppressing excessive immune activation in the bowel walls. However, alternative strategies can be drawn. These involve the augmentation of the innate immune response, in the hypothesis that patients affected with Crohn’s disease are characterized by a relative immunodeficiency, with failure of the defensive barrier to luminal microbes and microbial products, resulting in a chronic inflammatory process sustained by T-cells. Alternatively, therapy could act by enhancing the number or the activity of subpopulations of T regulatory cells, able to reduce T-cell activation. Colony-stimulating factors are substances that could be efficacious in these settings. In fact, besides in vitro and animal studies, some human studies have been conducted in recent years with both granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, the results of which are reported here.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease.

           S Almer,  S Lesage,  J Hugot (2001)
          Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two main types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, are multifactorial conditions of unknown aetiology. A susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease has been mapped to chromosome 16. Here we have used a positional-cloning strategy, based on linkage analysis followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping, to identify three independent associations for Crohn's disease: a frameshift variant and two missense variants of NOD2, encoding a member of the Apaf-1/Ced-4 superfamily of apoptosis regulators that is expressed in monocytes. These NOD2 variants alter the structure of either the leucine-rich repeat domain of the protein or the adjacent region. NOD2 activates nuclear factor NF-kB; this activating function is regulated by the carboxy-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain, which has an inhibitory role and also acts as an intracellular receptor for components of microbial pathogens. These observations suggest that the NOD2 gene product confers susceptibility to Crohn's disease by altering the recognition of these components and/or by over-activating NF-kB in monocytes, thus documenting a molecular model for the pathogenic mechanism of Crohn's disease that can now be further investigated.
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            Cutting edge: cure of colitis by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

            CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells have been shown to prevent T cell-mediated immune pathology; however, their ability to ameliorate established inflammation has not been tested. Using the CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cell transfer model of inflammatory bowel disease, we show that CD4(+)CD25(+) but not CD4(+)CD25(-)CD45RB(low) T cells are able to cure intestinal inflammation. Transfer of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells into mice with colitis led to resolution of the lamina propria infiltrate in the intestine and reappearance of normal intestinal architecture. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells were found to proliferate in the mesenteric lymph nodes and inflamed colon. They were located between clusters of CD11c(+) cells and pathogenic T cells and found to be in contact with both cell types. These studies suggest that manipulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.
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              Defective acute inflammation in Crohn's disease: a clinical investigation.

              The cause of Crohn's disease has not been mechanistically proven. We tested the hypothesis that the disease is a form of immunodeficiency caused by impaired innate immunity. We investigated inflammatory responses in patients and controls by quantifying neutrophil recruitment and cytokine production after acute trauma, interleukin 8 secretion by cultured monocyte-derived macrophages after exposure to inflammatory mediators, and local inflammatory and vascular changes in response to subcutaneous injection of heat-killed Escherichia coli. In patients with Crohn's disease, trauma to rectum, ileum, or skin led to abnormally low neutrophil accumulation (differences from healthy individuals of 79%, n=8, p=0.0003; 57%, n=3, p=0.05; 50%, n=13, p<0.0001, respectively) and lower production of proinflammatory interleukin 8 (63%, n=7, p=0.003; 63%, n=3, p=0.05; 45%, n=8, p<0.0001) and interleukin 1beta (50%, n=8, p=0.0005). Interleukin 8 secretion by cultured macrophages was reduced after exposure to acute wound fluid (38%, n=50, p<0.0001), C5a (48%, n=41, p=0.0005), or tumour necrosis factor alpha (52%, n=27, p<0.0001). Local inflammatory reaction to inoculation with E coli was attenuated, as quantified by changes in bloodflow (ileal disease 50%, n=6, p=0.01; colonic disease 77%, n=6, p=0.0003). This response was mediated by nitric oxide in controls, was increased by sildenafil in patients, and was not related to CARD15 genotype. In Crohn's disease, a constitutionally weak immune response predisposes to accumulation of intestinal contents that breach the mucosal barrier of the bowel wall, resulting in granuloma formation and chronic inflammation. Polymorphisms in CARD15 do not underlie this phenotype, but incapacitate the NOD2 pathway that can compensate for impairment of innate inflammation. Current treatment of secondary chronic inflammation might exaggerate the underlying lesion and promote chronic disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                October 2008
                October 2008
                : 4
                : 5
                : 927-934
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Operative Unit of Gastroenterology and
                [2 ]Department of Hematology, Laboratory of Immunology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Luisa Guidi, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Medicina Interna e Geriatria, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Roma, Italia, Tel +39 6350 3239, Fax +39 6305 4641, Email lguidi@ 123456rm.unicatt.it
                Article
                tcrm-4-927
                2621411
                19209275
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                crohn’s disease treatment, g-csf, gm-csf, inflammatory bowel disease

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