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      Exercise interventions for improving objective physical function in patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis have increased mortality and reduced physical activity, contributing to impaired physical function. Although exercise programs have demonstrated a positive effect on physiological outcomes such as cardiovascular function and strength, there is a reduced focus on physical function. The aim of this review was to determine whether exercise programs improve objective measures of physical function indicative of activities of daily living for patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature identified 27 randomized control trials. Only randomized control trials using an exercise intervention or significant muscular activation in the intervention, a usual care, nonexercising control group, and at least one objective measure of physical function were included. Participants were ≥18 yr of age, with end-stage kidney disease, undergoing hemo- or peritoneal dialysis. Systematic review of the literature and quality assessment of the included studies used the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk bias. A meta-analysis was completed for the 6-min walk test. Data from 27 studies with 1,156 participants showed that exercise, regardless of modality, generally increased 6-min walk test distance, sit-to-stand time or repetitions, and grip strength as well as step and stair climb times or repetitions, dynamic mobility, and short physical performance battery scores. From the evidence available, exercise, regardless of modality, improved objective measures of physical function for end-stage kidney disease patients undergoing dialysis. It is acknowledged that further well-designed randomized control trials are required.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Physical activity levels in patients on hemodialysis and healthy sedentary controls.

          Patients on dialysis have reduced exercise tolerance compared with age-matched sedentary controls. The reasons for this debility have not been fully elucidated, but physical inactivity could be a contributing factor. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether patients on hemodialysis are less active than healthy sedentary controls and to explore clinical correlates of physical activity level in a group of hemodialysis patients. Thirty-four hemodialysis patients and 80 healthy sedentary individuals participated in the study. Physical activity was measured for seven days with a three-dimensional accelerometer and with an activity questionnaire. Vector magnitude values from the accelerometer for the dialysis and control subjects were 104,718 +/- 9631 and 161,255 +/- 6792 arbitrary units per day, respectively (P < 0.0001, mean +/- SEM). The estimated energy expenditure values derived from the questionnaire were 33.6 +/- 0.5 kcal/kg/day and 36.2 +/- 0.5 kcal/kg/day (P = 0.002). The difference between patients on dialysis and controls increased with advancing age. Among the dialysis subjects, some measures of nutritional status correlated with physical activity level, including serum albumin concentration (r = 0.58, P = 0.003), serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.37, P = 0. 03), and phase angle derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (r = 0.40, P = 0.02). Patients on hemodialysis are less active than healthy sedentary controls, and this difference is more pronounced among older individuals. There is an association between the level of physical activity and nutritional status among patients on dialysis. These findings are of great concern, given the trend toward increasing age in incident dialysis patients and the well-known association between inactivity and increased mortality in the general population.
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            Effects of resistance exercise training and nandrolone decanoate on body composition and muscle function among patients who receive hemodialysis: A randomized, controlled trial.

            Patients who are on hemodialysis commonly experience muscle wasting and weakness, which have a negative effect on physical functioning and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether anabolic steroid administration and resistance exercise training induce anabolic effects among patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis. A randomized 2 x 2 factorial trial of anabolic steroid administration and resistance exercise training was conducted in 79 patients who were receiving maintenance hemodialysis at University of California, San Francisco-affiliated dialysis units. Interventions included double-blinded weekly nandrolone decanoate (100 mg for women; 200 mg for men) or placebo injections and lower extremity resistance exercise training for 12 wk during hemodialysis sessions three times per week using ankle weights. Primary outcomes included change in lean body mass (LBM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and knee extensor muscle strength. Secondary outcomes included changes in physical performance, self-reported physical functioning, and physical activity. Sixty-eight patients completed the study. Patients who received nandrolone decanoate increased their LBM by 3.1 +/- 2.2 kg (P < 0.0001). Exercise did not result in a significant increase in LBM. Quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in patients who were assigned to exercise (P = 0.01) and to nandrolone (P < 0.0001) in an additive manner. Patients who exercised increased their strength in a training-specific fashion, and exercise was associated with an improvement in self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.04 compared with nonexercising groups). Nandrolone decanoate and resistance exercise produced anabolic effects among patients who were on hemodialysis. Further studies are needed to determine whether these interventions improve survival.
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              Exercise in the end-stage renal disease population.

              Many of the known benefits of exercise in the general population are of particular relevance to the ESRD population. In addition, the poor physical functioning that is experienced by patients who are on dialysis is potentially addressable through exercise interventions. The study of exercise in the ESRD population dates back almost 30 yr, and numerous interventions, including aerobic training, resistance exercise training, and combined training programs, have reported beneficial effects. Recently, interventions during hemodialysis sessions have become more popular and have been shown to be safe. The risks of exercise in this population have not been rigorously studied, but there have been no reports of serious injury as a result of participation in an exercise training program. It is time that we incorporate exercise into the routine care of patients who are on dialysis, but identification of an optimal training regimen or regimens, according to patient characteristics or needs, is still needed to facilitate implementation of exercise programs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology
                American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology
                American Physiological Society
                1931-857X
                1522-1466
                May 01 2019
                May 01 2019
                : 316
                : 5
                : F856-F872
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
                [2 ]Medical and Clinical Affairs, Satellite Healthcare, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                [3 ]School of Nursing and Midwifery, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
                Article
                10.1152/ajprenal.00317.2018
                © 2019

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