Patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis have increased mortality and reduced physical activity, contributing to impaired physical function. Although exercise programs have demonstrated a positive effect on physiological outcomes such as cardiovascular function and strength, there is a reduced focus on physical function. The aim of this review was to determine whether exercise programs improve objective measures of physical function indicative of activities of daily living for patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature identified 27 randomized control trials. Only randomized control trials using an exercise intervention or significant muscular activation in the intervention, a usual care, nonexercising control group, and at least one objective measure of physical function were included. Participants were ≥18 yr of age, with end-stage kidney disease, undergoing hemo- or peritoneal dialysis. Systematic review of the literature and quality assessment of the included studies used the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk bias. A meta-analysis was completed for the 6-min walk test. Data from 27 studies with 1,156 participants showed that exercise, regardless of modality, generally increased 6-min walk test distance, sit-to-stand time or repetitions, and grip strength as well as step and stair climb times or repetitions, dynamic mobility, and short physical performance battery scores. From the evidence available, exercise, regardless of modality, improved objective measures of physical function for end-stage kidney disease patients undergoing dialysis. It is acknowledged that further well-designed randomized control trials are required.